A-Z List


Parkinson's

Journal Articles


 

Affect

Thaut, M.H., & de l'Etoile, S.K. (1993).The effects of music on mood state-dependent recall. Journal of Music Therapy. 30, 70-79.
Location- Bound Journals.

This analysis examined the effects of music as a mood induction stimulus and the ability to recall previous information in the brain. Fifty subjects were chosen and participated in one of five experiments: the presence of music as a background stimulus or recall or both, no music, or music used to induce mood. Those in the mood induction study recalled more information than the non-music study. The results will hopefully encourage therapists to include music for mood elevation. An abundance of studies have shown that previously encoded information can be obtained from memory through music or mood induction.

Thaut, M.H. Neuropsychological processes in music perception and their relevance in music therapy.
Unkefer, R.F. (ed.) (1990) Music therapy in the treatment of adults with mental disorders. New York, Schirmer, 3-32.
UWEC call#: ML 3920.M899

This study described the treatment of music stimuli that provides a model for the use of music therapy to focus on cognitive, affective, and perceptual aspects. For Parkinson's patients especially, cognitive areas need to be assessed. The capacity of an individual to interpret emotions of others may be the most important determinant of a healthy ego and good social skills.

Neurological

Top

Tomaino, C.M., & Sacks, O. Music and neurological disorder.
International Journal of Arts Medicine. 1, No. 1, 10-12.

This article touched on the neurological side of Parkinson’s disease and the emotional processing of music in the brain. It explains how certain songs can decrease the harshness of the disease for each individual. It also discusses the motor responses that are achieved through music, both new and well known. The article states that effects from PD can be diminished through the use of music for a short time.

Thaut, M., Schleiffers S., & Davis, W. (1991). Analysis of EMG activity in biceps and triceps muscle in an upper extremity gross motor task under the influence of auditory rhythm. Journal of Music Therapy. 27, 64-68.
Location- Bound Journals.

This article described the effects of auditory rhythm as a stimulus for movement. The authors investigated the muscle activity by measuring changes in the electromyographic (EMG) patterns of the biceps and triceps. The subjects were assigned to one of three groups: repeat task as in pretest (control group); perform task with auditory rhythm matched to internal tempo; and perform task with auditory rhythm slower than internal tempo. The results of this study showed that using musical stimuli can help stimulate movement, which therefore improves endurance, strength, and range of motion.

Physiological

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Thaut, M.H. (1989). The influence of preferred relaxing music on measures of state anxiety, relaxation, and physiological responses.Journal of Music Therapy. 26, 168-187.
Location- Bound Journals.

The intention of this study was to measure physiological/psychological responses to relaxing music. 18 people were randomly selected for the study. Physiological data collected included: vascular constriction, heart rate, muscle tension and finger skin temperature. This data showed that the music aroused and excited instead of soothed muscular activity, indicating that people rely on their favorite music for excitement rather than for relaxation.

Thaut, M.H. Physiological and motor responses to music stimuli.
Unkefer, R.F. (ed) (1990). Music therapy in the treatment of adults with mental disorders. New York, Schirmer, 33-49. Location- Main Stacks.

This article presents two different aspects of music stimuli: changes of autonomic and central nervous functions, and skeleto-motor responses related to motor rehabilitation. The articles validate music therapy interventions in music stimuli. A movement plan provides mechanisms for control in activities. Since PD patients do not have the ability to have a movement plan, it is assumed that the brain areas used for execution and motor control are worn down.

Birdenshaw-Fleming, L. (1993). Music for All. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson.
UWEC Call #: ML3920.B52 1993

Cerebral palsy is an irreversible, non-progressive condition caused by damage to the brain at birth. Depending on the area of the brain that is damaged, the person with cerebral palsy has varying degrees of control over trunk, limb, and head movement. The challenge is to find alternate means of communication for each person. Blissymbolics is one method of communication. It is a method based on common words, letters, and certain ideas represented by symbols. Blissymbolics can be used to sing a song or in discussing lyrics.

Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation

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Thaut, M.H., RMT, Rice, R.R., McIntosh, G.C., & Hurt, C.P. MM. (1998). Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Music Therapy. 35, 228-241.
Location- Bound Journals.

In this evaluation, RAS was studied as an entrainment design and stimulus. The purpose was to facilitate gait patterns in eight traumatically brain injured individuals with gait disorders. Rhythmic facilitation to enhance timing of gait movement helps velocity, cadence, and stride. This effect was previously demonstrated in gait training with stroke and Parkinson's disease patients.

Thaut, M.H., Brown, S.H., Benjamin, J., & Cooke, D. Rhythmic facilitation of movement sequencing: effects on spatiotemporal control and sensory modality dependence.
Pratt, R.R., Spintge, R. (eds.) (1994) MusicMedicine, 2,Texas, Symposium
UWEC call#: ML3920.I57 1994

This study showed the efficiency of rhythmic auditory cueing in facilitating the spatiotemporal organization of complex, sequential movements. The ability to reproduce the variance in stimulating patterns into movement patterns is largest when the pattern was delivered in the auditory modality. It was most effective in the timing of motor sequences. The results of the two studies referenced in this article show the importance and efficiency of auditory rhythm as a clock source for programming complex movements.

Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., & Rice, R.R. Rhythmic auditory stimulation as an entrainment and therapy technique: effects on gait of stroke and Parkinson's patients.
Pratt, R.R., Spintge, R. (eds) (1996) MusicMedicine, 2, Texas, Symposium.
UWEC call#: ML3920.I57 1994

Music Therapy was integrated into the neurologic rehabilitation program in 1988. The effects of RAS (rhythmic auditory stimulation) on Parkinson's disease (PD) Patients were examined in Six PD patients. The patients walked four times for six meters. Initially, the patients were instructed to walk without any musical cueing. Each trial added more rhythmic cueing, and then a trial testing the carryover effect of RAS was conducted. The results found that four out of six patients improved their walking speed with RAS. The studies of PD patients are ongoing, and researchers are hoping to develop a better understanding of neurophysiologic mechanisms behind auditory motor facilitation in people.

Birdenshaw-Fleming, L. (1993). Music for All. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson.
UWEC Call #: ML3920.B52 1993

Cerebral palsy is an irreversible, non-progressive condition caused by damage to the brain at birth. Depending on the area of the brain that is damaged, the person with cerebral palsy has varying degrees of control over trunk, limb, and head movement. The challenge is to find alternate means of communication for each person. Blissymbolics is one method of communication. It is a method based on common words, letters, and certain ideas represented by symbols. Blissymbolics can be used to sing a song or in discussing lyrics.

Relaxation

Top

Thaut, M.H. (1989). The influence of preferred relaxing music on measures of state anxiety, relaxation, and physiological responses.Journal of Music Therapy. 26, 168-187.
Location- Bound Journals.

The intention of this study was to measure physiological/psychological responses to relaxing music. 18 people were randomly selected for the study. Physiological data collected included: vascular constriction, heart rate, muscle tension and finger skin temperature. This data showed that the music aroused and excited instead of soothed muscular activity, indicating that people rely on their favorite music for excitement rather than for relaxation.

Thaut, M.H., & Davis, W.B. (1993). The influence of subject-selected versus experimenter-chosen music on affect, anxiety, and relaxation. Journal of Music Therapy. 30, 210-223.
Location- Bound Journals.

This study's purpose was to weigh the effects of subject-selected and experimenter-chosen music. 54 subjects were randomly selected for the study, which took place in Colorado. The music was chosen on the basis that it was composed to relieve tension and increase relaxation. Results implied that subjects in all three conditions achieved relaxation responses. The presence/absence of music and the choice of music had no bearings on relaxation. The depression scores also had no change, but hostility scores were reduced.