A-Z List



[DSM III - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition).
American Psychiatric Association. 1980. p.195-198. p.306-309.]

  1. Paranoid Disorders - persistent persecury delusions or delusional jealousy
    1. Symptoms
      1. Difficulty relaxing
      2. No sense of humor (healthy humor)
      3. Can’t express emotions
      4. Social isolation
      5. Delusions
      6. Suspiciousness
  2. Types of Paranoid Disorders
    1. Paranoid Disorders
    2. Paranoia
    3. Shared Paranoia Disorders
    4. Acute Paranoid Disorders
      1. What Music Can Do
          1. Can help focus off the delusions and onto more positive thoughts
          2. Can be a bridge to help the patient relate to his/her family in a safe, healthy, and non-threatening way.
          3. Can help the patient organize his/her thoughts and feelings
          4. Can help support the patient emotionally during his/her delusions and then help redirect back to reality
    5. Atypical Paranoid Disorders

[DSM IV - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition).
American Psychiatric Association. (Copyright 1994). p.634-638.]

  1. Paranoid Personality Disorder - persistent distrust and suspiciousness of others
    1. Symptoms
      1. Suspects other people are lying or deceiving them and with no proof
      2. Is preoccupied with doubts about the loyalty or trust of their friends or coworkers
      3. Doesn’t confide in people easily because of unwarranted fear of the information being later used against them
      4. Reads hidden meanings, threatening or otherwise negative, into normal words or actions
      5. Continually holds grudges and is unforgiving to insults or injuries against them
      6. Becomes easily angry or defensive and jumps to conclusions about their character being attacked for no apparent reason
      7. Has continual suspicions of their spouse or partner’s faithfulness
    2. Other Problem Areas
      1. Have problems forming close, intimate relationships
      2. Blame others for their own shortcomings
      3. Can experience short psychotic episodes which can last from minutes to hours as a response to stress
      4. Often experience unrealistic fantasies
      5. Easily develop negative stereotypes to other people
      6. Can easily become involved in legal disputes
      7. Nervous when placed into ambiguous situations
    3. Needs
      1. Need to be self-sufficient
      2. Need to have strong sense of independence
      3. Need to have control over the people and situations around them
      4. Have a need to seek to prove their believed negative notions about the people or situations they deal with
    4. Signs - which can first be apparent in childhood
      1. Solitariness (loners)
      2. Poor relationships with their peers
      3. Social anxiety
      4. Underachievement in schoolwork
      5. Very sensitive
      6. Strange thoughts or language
      7. Fantasies
      8. Appear to be more commonly diagnosed in males in the clinical samples done
    5. What Music Can Do
      1. Can help the patient to develop a sense of humor
          1. Clever songs - funny lyrics
          2. Write words to a song, get the patient to tell the difference between healthy and unhealthy humor
      2. Can give a structure that gives permission for the patient to play like a child again
          1. Use music with puppets
          2. Improvisational dance
          3. Make homemade instruments
          4. Use music to tell stories from their childhood and play or sing their favorite songs when they were young
      3. Can help express emotions - the patient needs to be aware of his/her emotions and not embarrassed to express them
          1. Use musical instruments to guess the client’s emotions
          2. Dance
          3. Choosing music to listen to and discussing how the music makes the patient feel and what it makes them think about
          4. Drawing
          5. Song-writing about their emotions
          6. Improvisational music activities
          7. Playing musical instruments together
      4. Can help the patient to structure his/her free time in a healthy manner and distract from delusions
          1. Going to music concerts
          2. Teaching the patient to learn a musical instrument
          3. Dance
      5. Can help the patient relax and provide a healthy outlet for release
          1. Playing music to release energy and negative thoughts in a healthy manner
          2. Dance activities
          3. Playing drums or other percussion instruments
          4. Use the Iso-principle
          5. Use music or other sounds to induce sleep
          6. Use music with breathing exercises to calm
          7. Use music with some type of physical exercise to release stress and tension