A-Z List


Communication Disorders

Journal Articles


Adults

Top

Wilcox, Wilma B. (1996, March 9). Music cues from classroom singing for second language acquisition: Prosodic memory for pronunciation of target vocabulary by adult non-native English speakers. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3318-A.

This study looked into the use of songs and singing as a mean of teaching/improving pronunciation and memory recall of target vocabulary. Two groups of 50 adults for whom English is a second language were taped both at the beginning and end of the experiment. Dolly Parton’s "Nine to Five" was used as the song pattern. Neither group was familiar with the tune. One group was then taught the target English vocabulary using the song, while the other group was taught the same vocabulary without the song. The posttests of the two groups indicated that both groups had learned the material, and the musical presentation of the vocabulary was just as effective as the direct (no music) vocabulary presentation. Additional findings from the posttest audiotapes revealed qualitative evidence of improved fluency, recall, comprehension, and more in the music group.


Children


Top

Cassidy, Jane W. (1992) Communication disorders: Effect on children’s ability to label music characteristics. Journal of Music Therapy. 113-24.

This study examines the pairing of concrete stimuli (pictures or gestures) with auditory stimuli, and the ability of pre-school children to respond correctly to questions asked about an excerpt of music. 48 children were involved, 24 of whom had communication disorders. The others had communication abilities typical for children that age (3-6 years). Each group was broken into 3: 1 control, 1 verbal/visual treatment, and 1 verbal/gesture treatment. Each group was played a song, after which they were asked, "Was this song loud or soft?" (and "fast or slow?"). The visual group were given pictures to use for association." 

Fetzer, Lorelei. (1995, August 2). Facilitating print awareness and literacy development with familiar children’s songs. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 500-A.

This study compared reading and writing abilities of young students from two schools of equal socioeconomic composition and size. One school used music (popular children’s songs) as a foundation for teaching these elements, while the other did not. Both schools were pre-tested in December as well as post-tested in May using standardized instruments. In addition, there were writing samples and video recordings of student reading at regular intervals during the experiment. The results showed that the test group not only improved more than the control group in reading areas but also were more confident and enthusiastic about their reading abilities. Comparison of writing samples revealed progress in both groups, but the control group placed more of an emphasis on the final product, while the test group emphasized the actual writing process.

Michel, D.E. & Jones, J.L. (1992) Music for developing speech and language skills in children: A guide for parents and therapists. Music Therapy Perspectives. 114-15.

This handbook for parents and therapists provides a solid background for the basic uses of music activities to develop speech and language skills in children. It offers much information, including ideas and examples as well as a selection of songs and instruments to use with children. Musical development is analyzed and compared to communicative skills development. Insights into diagnosis and assessment are emphasized. One section describes how to establish goals and objectives with language once skills have been assessed.

Seidl, S.A. (1996, April). Therapeutic aspects of music and its effect upon a child with selective mutism. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3918-A.

This case study was done with an 8 year old girl with selective mutism (she was able to speak but refused to speak). Music was used with her particularly because of its non-threatening quality. A variety of activities were used, and several interventions took place not only at school but at home as well. The girl was videotaped to track progress, and parent/teacher questionnaires, client self-reports, research data sheets, and other methods were used. Results showed the interventions to be enjoyable to the girl, and she demonstrated increasing use of both verbal and non-verbal communication techniques. Eventually the girl expressed preference for certain musical activities. It was noted that the girl was aware of the video camera and could have been inhibited by it.


Highschool Students

Top

Black, J.G. (1996, Feb 8). Teaching elements of written composition through use of classical music and art: The effects on high school students writing. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3034-A.

This study compared 4 groups of high school students of differing abilities to test the effect of music and art on their writing abilities. Rationale included the strong parallel relationship between the composition of an aesthetic work and a written work. One group served as a control, while each test group received audio, visual, or audio-visual treatment. All groups were exposed to their element 2 days a week for 5 weeks. Analysis of results revealed that all the treatment groups writing abilities improved significantly on their post-test scores (when compared to their pre-test scores). The groups with the most improvement were the visual and the audiovisual treatments. Evidence of improvement was not immediate but occurred over a period of time.

Zoller, Mary B. (1991, January) Use of music activities in speech-language therapy. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 272-276.

This article reflects the belief that communication disorders should be approached holistically. That is, communication is an integral part of many things and should be approached as such. It continues to say that music is a true universal language to which all can relate, especially children. Music is playful, and play is the medium through which children learn the fastest due to the non-threatening and enjoyable nature of it. It allows for active participation and integrates cognitive and affective growth, and the benefits are reflected not only through communication, but also in memory, motor planning, creativity, and more. The article refers to several studies that show music is an effective means to aid communication disorders. In addition, it provides special considerations related to space, and describes specific activities and applications of musical interventions to aid communication disorders.

Listening Development

Top

Cassidy, Jane W. (1992) Communication disorders: Effect on children’s ability to label music characteristics. Journal of Music Therapy. 113-24.

This study examines the pairing of concrete stimuli (pictures or gestures) with auditory stimuli, and the ability of pre-school children to respond correctly to questions asked about an excerpt of music. 48 children were involved, 24 of whom had communication disorders. The others had communication abilities typical for children that age (3-6 years). Each group was broken into 3: 1 control, 1 verbal/visual treatment, and 1 verbal/gesture treatment. Each group was played a song, after which they were asked, "Was this song loud or soft?" (and "fast or slow?"). The visual group were given pictures to use for association."

Literacy Development

Top

Black, J.G. (1996, Feb 8). Teaching elements of written composition through use of classical music and art: The effects on high school students writing. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3034-A.

This study compared 4 groups of high school students of differing abilities to test the effect of music and art on their writing abilities. Rationale included the strong parallel relationship between the composition of an aesthetic work and a written work. One group served as a control, while each test group received audio, visual, or audio-visual treatment. All groups were exposed to their element 2 days a week for 5 weeks. Analysis of results revealed that all the treatment groups writing abilities improved significantly on their post-test scores (when compared to their pre-test scores). The groups with the most improvement were the visual and the audiovisual treatments. Evidence of improvement was not immediate but occurred over a period of time.

Fetzer, Lorelei. (1995, August 2). Facilitating print awareness and literacy development with familiar children’s songs. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 500-A.

This study compared reading and writing abilities of young students from two schools of equal socioeconomic composition and size. One school used music (popular children’s songs) as a foundation for teaching these elements, while the other did not. Both schools were pre-tested in December as well as post-tested in May using standardized instruments. In addition, there were writing samples and video recordings of student reading at regular intervals during the experiment. The results showed that the test group not only improved more than the control group in reading areas but also were more confident and enthusiastic about their reading abilities. Comparison of writing samples revealed progress in both groups, but the control group placed more of an emphasis on the final product, while the test group emphasized the actual writing process.

Zoller, Mary B. (1991, January) Use of music activities in speech-language therapy. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 272-276.

This article reflects the belief that communication disorders should be approached holistically. That is, communication is an integral part of many things and should be approached as such. It continues to say that music is a true universal language to which all can relate, especially children. Music is playful, and play is the medium through which children learn the fastest due to the non-threatening and enjoyable nature of it. It allows for active participation and integrates cognitive and affective growth, and the benefits are reflected not only through communication, but also in memory, motor planning, creativity, and more. The article refers to several studies that show music is an effective means to aid communication disorders. In addition, it provides special considerations related to space, and describes specific activities and applications of musical interventions to aid communication disorders.

Memory Recall

Top

York, Elizabeth F. (1996, March 9). The effects of music therapy interventions on naming and verbal fluency in persons with probable Alzheimer’s disease. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3495-A.

This study investigated the effects of music therapy interventions with naming and verbal fluency in persons with probable Alzheimer’s. The test group was comprised of 20 subjects, and the interventions were continued for one month. The single group was given both pre-tests and post-tests to measure progress. No significant correlation between the music therapy sessions and performance on the tests were found; however, there was a note that it would be hard to obtain significant positive results in this particular experiment due to the small number of participating subjects, as well as the large amount of missing data on the dependent measures involved.

Neurologically Impaired Patients

Top

Cohen, Nicki S. & Masse, Renee. (1993) The application of singing and rhythmic instruction as a therapeutic intervention for persons with neurogenetic communication disorder. Journal of Music Therapy. 81-99.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of singing instruction and rhythmic instruction on the rate of speech and verbal fluency in persons with neurogenetic communication disorder. Subjects were 32 patients who were residents of a chronic care home and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. 1 group was the control group, while another worked with rhythm, and the last with singing. Progress was measured in intelligible words per minute. Results showed the singing group made the most progress in intelligibility. Although a large difference between rates of the 2 test groups was not noted, both the groups improved in their performance. The test groups also benefited in other ways: social awareness, an emotional support system, and decreased frustration and alienation. The control group did not improve, but maintained their performance at the same level.

Cohen, Nicki S. (1992) The effect of singing instruction on the speech production of neurologically impaired persons. Journal of Music Therapy. 87-102.

The effect of singing instruction on speech production was examined in this study. Subjects were 8 neurologically impaired adults with expressive speech disorders-6 were in the treatment group, while the other 2 served as a control group. The treatment group received the musical intervention for 30 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 weeks. Pre-tests and post-tests were administered, as well as probes, to monitor the progress of the 2 groups. At the end of the 3 weeks, results revealed that 67% of the treatment group demonstrated improvement while the control group members did not consistently improve in any of the tested factors. Treatment group members also benefited socially and emotionally from the group singing.

Seidl, S.A. (1996, April). Therapeutic aspects of music and its effect upon a child with selective mutism. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3918-A.



This case study was done with an 8 year old girl with selective mutism (she was able to speak but refused to speak). Music was used with her particularly because of its non-threatening quality. A variety of activities were used, and several interventions took place not only at school but at home as well. The girl was videotaped to track progress, and parent/teacher questionnaires, client self-reports, research data sheets, and other methods were used. Results showed the interventions to be enjoyable to the girl, and she demonstrated increasing use of both verbal and non-verbal communication techniques. Eventually the girl expressed preference for certain musical activities. It was noted that the girl was aware of the video camera and could have been inhibited by it.

York, Elizabeth F. (1996, March 9). The effects of music therapy interventions on naming and verbal fluency in persons with probable Alzheimer’s disease. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3495-A.

This study investigated the effects of music therapy interventions with naming and verbal fluency in persons with probable Alzheimer’s. The test group was comprised of 20 subjects, and the interventions were continued for one month. The single group was given both pre-tests and post-tests to measure progress. No significant correlation between the music therapy sessions and performance on the tests were found; however, there was a note that it would be hard to obtain significant positive results in this particular experiment due to the small number of participating subjects, as well as the large amount of missing data on the dependent measures involved.

Parents of Children with Communication Disorders

Top

Michel, D.E. & Jones, J.L. (1992) Music for developing speech and language skills in children: A guide for parents and therapists. Music Therapy Perspectives. 114-15.

This handbook for parents and therapists provides a solid background for the basic uses of music activities to develop speech and language skills in children. It offers much information, including ideas and examples as well as a selection of songs and instruments to use with children. Musical development is analyzed and compared to communicative skills development. Insights into diagnosis and assessment are emphasized. One section describes how to establish goals and objectives with language once skills have been assessed.

Second Language Acquisition

Top

Wilcox, Wilma B. (1996, March 9). Music cues from classroom singing for second language acquisition: Prosodic memory for pronunciation of target vocabulary by adult non-native English speakers. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3318-A.

This study looked into the use of songs and singing a means of teaching/improving pronunciation and memory recall of target vocabulary. Two groups of 50 adults for whom English is a second language were taped both at the beginning and end of the experiment. Dolly Parton’s "Nine to Five" was used as the song pattern. Neither group was familiar with the tune. One group was then taught the target English vocabulary using the song, while the other group was taught the same vocabulary without the song. The posttests of the two groups indicated that both groups had learned the material, and the musical presentation of the vocabulary was just as effective as the direct (no music) vocabulary presentation. Additional findings from the posttest audiotapes revealed qualitative evidence of improved fluency, recall, comprehension, and more in the music group.

Speech-Language Therapy

Top

Cohen, Nicki S. (1992) The effect of singing instruction on the speech production of neurologically impaired persons. Journal of Music Therapy. 87-102.

The effect of singing instruction on speech production was examined in this study. Subjects were 8 neurologically impaired adults with expressive speech disorders-6 were in the treatment group, while the other 2 served as a control group. The treatment group received the musical intervention for 30 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 weeks. Pre-tests and post-tests were administered, as well as probes, to monitor the progress of the 2 groups. At the end of the 3 weeks, results revealed that 67% of the treatment group demonstrated improvement while the control group members did not consistently improve in any of the tested factors. Treatment group members also benefited socially and emotionally from the group singing.

Michel, D.E. & Jones, J.L. (1992) Music for developing speech and language skills in children: A guide for parents and therapists. Music Therapy Perspectives. 114-15.

This handbook for parents and therapists provides a solid background for the basic uses of music activities to develop speech and language skills in children. It gives much information, including ideas and examples as well as a selection of songs and instruments to use with children. Musical development is analyzed and compared to communicative skills development. Insights into diagnosis and assessment are emphasized. One section describes how to establish goals and objectives with language once skills have been assessed.

Zoller, Mary B. (1991, January) Use of music activities in speech-language therapy. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 272-276.

This article reflects the belief that communication disorders should be approached holistically. That is, communication is an integral part of many things and should be approached as such. It continues to say that music is a true universal language to which all can relate, especially children. Music is playful, and play is the medium through which children learn the fastest due to the non-threatening and enjoyable nature of it. It allows for active participation and integrates cognitive and affective growth, and the benefits are reflected not only through communication, but also in memory, motor planning, creativity, and more. The article refers to several studies that show music is an effective means to aid communication disorders. In addition, it provides special considerations related to space, and describes specific activities and applications of musical interventions to aid communication disorders.

Writing

Top

Black, J.G. (1996, Feb 8). Teaching elements of written composition through use of classical music and art: The effects on high school students writing. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 3034-A.

This study compared 4 groups of high school students of differing abilities to test the effect of music and art on their writing abilities. Rationale included the strong parallel relationship between the composition of an aesthetic work and a written work. One group served as a control, while each test group received audio, visual, or audio-visual treatment. All groups were exposed to their element 2 days a week for 5 weeks. Analysis of results revealed that all the treatment groups writing abilities improved significantly on their post-test scores (when compared to their pre-test scores). The groups with the most improvement were the visual and the audiovisual treatments. Evidence of improvement was not immediate but occurred over a period of time.

Fetzer, Lorelei. (1995, August 2). Facilitating print awareness and literacy development with familiar children’s songs. Dissertation Abstracts Online, 56, 500-A.

This study compared reading and writing abilities of young students from two schools of equal socioeconomic composition and size. One school used music (popular children’s songs) as a foundation for teaching these elements, while the other did not. Both schools were pre-tested in December as well as post-tested in May using standardized instruments. In addition, there were writing samples and video recordings of student reading at regular intervals during the experiment. The results showed that the test group not only improved more than the control group in reading areas but also were more confident and enthusiastic about their reading abilities. Comparison of writing samples revealed progress in both groups, but the control group placed more of an emphasis on the final product, while the test group emphasized the actual writing process.