A-Z List

Music Therapy on Chronic Pain

Journal Articles

Compiled by Allison Reynolds - December 1999

The Use of Music Therapy to Soothe Pain and to Treat Physical and Mental Conditions

Harish, John M and Eagle, Charles T. (1988) Elements of Pain and music: The Aio Connection. Journal of the American Association for Music Therapists 7: 15-27. 306280008278381.

This article outlined the similarities between music and pain. Two of the most important similarities are that both can be classified as sensory input and output. Sensory input means that when music is heard, the signals sent to the brain are sensorily as real as signals sent to the brain when pain is felt. Sensory output comes from the limbic system, which is usually considered the site of emotional synthesis. If the vibration of music can be brought into close resonance with the vibration of the pain, then the psychological perception of the pain is altered and eliminated.

Marwick, Charles. (1996). Leaving concert hall for clinic, therapists now test music's charms. Journal of American Medical Association 275:4 267-8.

This article discusses the profession of Music Therapy and how it is being recognized as a valid adjunct to traditional therapies by doctors and 3rd party insurance payers. It describes the research and success therapists have had with clients who have had strokes and clients who have had Parkinson's disease. It also shows that women who have used music therapy in labor and delivery have shown improved abilities to walk and reported decreased pain in childbirth. Deforia Lane, Ph.D., studied the immune response to singing and found increased levels of IgA after a vocal singing session. For children with cancer, this increase helps to stimulate their immune systems to help fight their disease. Other references describe music therapy experiences with people who have profound cognitive impairments, autism, and mental and physical disabilities and for whom music therapy resulted in positive responses. The brain responds to the musical program more readily in these client populations than to mechanical speech.

Laird, R & Beattie, S. (1989) Rx: Elvis RN 52:44-47.

This article reinforces the old adage "Music soothes the savage beast." Several case studies demonstrated that after a few sessions, or an afternoon of listening to a patient's favorite music, patients show improvement in their mood and in coping with their illnesses and heal faster in body and spirit. Many studies have shown music alleviated physiological signs of anxiety, decreased blood pressure, palpitations, tightness in the chest and peripheral vasoconstriction. Music Therapy improves skin temperature and results in relaxation. It distracts patients from pain and worry and helps their appetite and sleeping. Ideas about how to get music therapy programming started in your health care setting are presented.

Whipple, B. & Glynn, N. (1992) Quantification of the effects of listening to music as a noninvasive method of pain control. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal 6:143-56.

Pain is the most common reason people seek help from the medical profession. Nursing used many approaches to treat pain such as : (1) pain medication, (2) imagery, (3) deep breathing, and (4) music. Until recently, these non-invasion procedures used to cope with pain had no research data to support this use. However, this quanitative study supports the Gate Control Theory of pain and provides hard data to support using music as a modality to relieve pain.

Aldridge, David. (1996). Music Therapy Research and Practice in Medicine from Out of the Silence. 352p. ISBN 1 85302 296 9

This book explores the power of music as a healing treatment for many physical and mental conditions. Aldridge looks at how music therapy can treat pain, bowel disease, life-threatening illness, children with developmental delay, and the elderly. It includes descriptions of research, how to set up a current practice, and how a therapist conducts treatment programs and is credentialed.

The Use of Music Therapy for Relaxation


Scartelli, Joesph. (1984) The Effect of the EMG Biofeedback and Sedative Music Only on Frontalis Muscle Relaxation Ability. The Journal of Music Therapy 21: 67-78. 306280006036526.

This article described a study that examined the use of music as an aid to biofeedback assisted relaxation training. The purpose was to examine the effect of sedative instrumental music on EMG biofeedback relaxation training of normal tensive adults. The study used three groups: one with just biofeedback, one with just music and one with both. The sedative music paired with biofeedback relaxation was the most effective condition. Subjects labeled the music sequences as “calming,” “peaceful,” and “sedate.”

Collins Peach, Susan. (1984) Some Implications for the Clinical Use of Music Facilitated Imagery. The Journal of Music Therapy 21: 27-35. 306280006036526.

In this experiment questionnaire responses were collected from short-term psychiatric inpatients, students and staff. Relaxation methods were used which incorporated the use of comfortable seats, a dark room and music. The experimenter also described specific imagery for the subjects to follow, encouraging multiple sensory involvement. The results included that the average body temperature of those tested increased an average of 5.4 degrees, while relaxation increased from 2.6 (somewhere between “a little relaxed” and “moderately relaxed”) to 3.6 (between “moderately relaxed” and “very relaxed”).

Rider, Mark. (Winter, 1985) Entrainment Mechanisms Involved in Pain Reduction, Muscle Relaxation, and Music-Mediated Imagery. Journal of Music Therapy 22: 183-192. 30628006036534.

The experiment described in this article involved 23 spinal cord injury patients who had been admitted to the Spinal Pain Clinic for a three-week period of cognitive-behavioral and physical therapies. They listened to tapes through headphones of 10 minutes of muscle relaxation instruction followed by 10 minutes of music. The music used ranged from “minimalist” music to classical and jazz. Results indicated that entrainment music, in which the prevalent mood shifted from tension to relaxation, was significantly the most effective condition in reducing pain and EMG levels. Entrainment involves a person unconsciously matching a pulse generated in a musical selection with a personal respiration rate.

Meyer, Charles. (1992) Forty-five minutes of Mozart, bid? American Journal of Nursing 92:13.

This article reported on a study that involved the use of 45 minutes of music twice a day to gauge whether it was effective in comparison to a 60-cycle hum. Interestingly enough, both created a sense of relaxation and a decrease in pain; however, the music's effectiveness to decrease the pain was double that of the hum. This study was conducted with cancer patients who were not taking any analgesics.

Guzzella, Cathie. (1994) Soothing the ischemic heart. American Journal of Nursing 94:24.

This article presents a synopsis of several articles from Heart and Lung, Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, and Holistic Nursing, which all found that playing 20 minutes of a tape of music perceived as soothing by a client relaxes the client. The relaxed client's heart has time to rest. The authors advise finding a comfortable position, focusing concentration, developing a passive attitude, and creating a quiet environment to promote relaxation with the use of the tape.

Bral, E. (1998) Caring for adults with chronic cancer pain. American Journal of Nursing. 98:4. 27-32.

This article which focuses on cancer pain, describes music therapy as a non-intrusive intervention which allows a patient to relax, providing distraction from the pain. Music reduces pain intensity and competes with the pain impulses in the central nervous system. It is recommended to allow patients to choose the music they prefer and let them express their feelings.

Miller, A. (1997). Ingenious Pain. Harcourt Brace & Co. New York, NY. ISBN 0-15-100258-4

This book is written to parallel Gulliver's Travels. The main character is a physician who comes to experience a world completely different than the one to which he was accustomed. It is fiction but is based on the exploration of a man's non-existence with the world of pain. He is unable to feel pain. He did not even cry at his birth. Throughout the years of his life and even when he treated others for pain, he never understood pain. He endeavors to vaccinate the Empress of Asia against smallpox, so he enters a world completely different from what he knows. She bewitches him, and suddenly he feels pain physically, emotionally, etc. He learns of pain in a new way through his own feelings. I feel this book will shed light for people who have never known pain and will help them to see it through the eyes of a new believer. Music may be used as a distraction from pain and as a stimulus for relaxation.

Clair, A. (1996). Theraputic Uses of Music with Older Adults Health Professions Press, Inc. P.O. Box 10624 Baltimore, Maryland 21285-0624 pp. 6,12,71,100,120-121,124-125,128-139,172,184-185,232-233, 247. (UWEC Library Call number ML3920.C59 1996).

This book explores several aspects of pain and presents ways to use music to help identify and manage it. Music relaxes people, reduces stress, and improves tolerance to pain.

Music Therapy Used in Surgery


Thompson, J.F. (1995) Music in the operating theater. British Journal of Surgery 82:12. 1586-1587. http://www.pain.com/painscripts/Pain Search.dll?2

This article discusses the use of music in the operating room (OR). Music used in the OR has the potential to provide positive results for both surgeons and OR staff when they are allowed to listen to music of their choice. This listening resulted in improvement of both speed and accuracy. Familiar music increased their concentration and reduced the deterioration of vigilance over time. Music chosen by the patient before, during and after surgery yielded anxiolytic effects and improved tolerance to pain. When music was provided to anesthetized patients, they required less anesthesia during surgery and less analgesia during recovery.

Taylor, Dale. (1980-81) Music in General Hospital Treatment from 1900-1950. The Journal of Music Therapy 18: 62-73. 30628000603650.

This article describes a major project initiated by Kenneth Pictrell that uses music in all phases of the surgical procedure and in other hospital departments. The goals were to eliminate fear, establish confidence and alloy apprehension by producing a congenial atmosphere for both the patient and everyone else involved in the surgery. This study found that music helped sooth and comfort the patient who was often left alone. Music played directly through earphones helped distract the patients from attending to the noise of surgical instruments and conversations related to the operation.

Euper, Jo Ann. (1965-69) Recent Trends in the Care of Chronic Patients. The Journal of Music Therapy 1-6: 38-41. 306280006036410.

This article states that the most difficult phase of the illness occurs after the patient leaves the protected hospital environment to face life in an unprotected manner. The patient needs treatment in order to maintain adjustment in the face of interpersonal, social and environmental problems. The article stresses that the most important aspect in the new programs for treating chronically ill patients is the change of attitude on the part of the staff: the refusal to believe that the patient is incurable. With chronic patients, music therapists again see an opportunity for intensive therapy in the monitored aftercare in the community situation.

Music Therapy Used in Gynecological Procedures


Colwell, Cynthia. (1997) Music as distraction and relaxation to reduce chronic pain and narcotic ingestion case study. Music Therapy Perspectives 15: 24-30.

This quantitative research article examined a client who had chronic gynecological pain post operatively from endometriosis scar tissue. She attended fourteen sessions using vibration, music, singing, creative imagery and progressive relaxation exercises. These sessions were held during the usual times of the pain occurrence. Her mean scores using a tool to measure pain and feelings of control over it moved from a rating of 48% prior to these sessions to a 37% rating after the sessions. She felt more control and experienced less pain after using these tools to help her live with this type of chronic pain.

Mullooly, Virginia., Levin, Rona, F. & Feldman, Harriet R. (1988) Music soothes postop pain and anxiety. American Journal of Nursing 88: 949,951.

This study looked at post-op women who had hysterectomies. Ten minute segments of easy-listening music were used on the first two days after surgery. The women scored their anxiety, rating it on a scale of 0-5, from calm to extremely anxious. After listening to the music, the amount of anxiety reported was significantly lower. The women used these music sessions three hours after their last pain pill. Their pain lessened by the music only on the 2nd post-op day.

Davis, Cynthia. (Winter, 1992) The Effects of Music and Basic Relaxation Instruction on Pain and Anxiety of the Women Undergoing In-Office Gynecological Procedures. The Journal of Music Therapy 29-30: 202-217. 306280009271747.

Twenty-two female patients who had to undergo certain gynecological procedures were used in this study. The study measured procedural pain and anxiety levels by behavioral observations, pulse and respiratory rates recorded at designated points during the procedures, and the subjects' self-reports following the procedures. The music used was whatever the patient chose for herself. The observed pain responses in the control group were consistently higher than in the experimental group at all points in the procedures, except upon the doctor's exit. Music therapy and basic relaxation instruction can be valuable to the patients and staff in the field of gynecology by resulting in less pain, fewer procedural complications and a decrease in time needed to complete the medical procedures.

Music Therapy Used to Lower Blood Pressure/ Heart Rate


Hoffman, Janalea. (1997) Tuning in to the power of music. RN 60:52-54

This article focuses on the rhythm of music and how it can influence our bodies physiologically and emotionally. The author shared many experiences she had with music therapy clients. In one example she played tapes for 15 seconds prior to a session with autistic children. They were able to hold a drumstick and participate in the music therapy session. When in tachycardia, cardiac patients were able to reduce their heart rates to 50-60 beats per minute when listening to music that was exactly 50-60 beats a minute. Another client experienced a deep spiritual feeling after listening to a musical piece that was coupled with guided imagery. She gained an insight she did not have before and felt that healing was elicited. This article did not speak specifically about pain, but music can be used for distraction, or relaxation.

Wong, Donna. (1988). Changing what children hear in the ICU can lower intracranial pressure. America Journal of Nursing. 88:279-280.

This study from the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin-Milwaukee was conducted by clinical nurse specialist Jenifer Wincek in the pediatric critical care unit. Stimulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis occurred at 70 decibels (dB). This stress response led to increasing blood pressure, heart rate, and cerebral blood flow, thus increasing intracranial pressure, ICP. Wincek used two methods to decrease this noise: (1) blocking the noise by head phones and (2) adding music. Measures of heart rate, ICP and blood pressures were taken 15 minutes before and after the two methods, and a dramatic drop from 29% to 16% was experienced when the music was used.

Oz, M., Lemole, E., OZ, L., Whitworth, G., & Lemole, G. (1996). Treating cad with cardiac surgery combined with complementary therapy. Medscape Women's Health 1:10 http://www.medscape.com/Medscape/womens.health/1996/v01.n10/w149.oz/w149.oz.html

Heart disease occurs later in life for women and because of their willingness to try complementary modalities, this research was done to learn more about the holistic approach to treating women's heart disease. This article describes women's responses to coronary artery surgery using adjutant therapies of music therapy, vitamin therapy, reflexology, yoga, massage, hypnosis, self-meditation, aromatherapy, hypnosis, diet and other modalities to complement surgery. The tapes of the music allowed the women to block undesired noises in the surgery suite and ICU. The music distracted the patients, allowing them to focus on an alternative imaginary place to be, instead of in the surgery suite.

Wagner, Michael. (1975) Brainwaves and Biofeedback a Brief History- Implications for Music Research. The Journal of Music Therapy 12: 46-59. 306280006036453.

This article states that music has been used in a number of psychophysiological studies, including studies on the effecte of music on the nervous system and heart rate. In general, there is evidence that aural (or music) stimuli affect the cerebral responses to visual stimuli and result in higher beta brainwaves. Future research to examine connections among music, EEG and biofeedback is needed.

Music Therapy Used With Cancer Patients


Short, Allison. (1991) The role of Guided Imagery and Music in Diagnosing Physical Illness or Trauma. Journal of the American Association for Music Therapists 10: 38-45. 306280010181616.

This study portrayed responses of a woman who had breast cancer for 2 years. She had been successfully treated by breast removal and chemotherapy. She used visual imagery of what the cancer looked like as well as music to better her spirits about her cancer. She became healthy after using this imagery/music and is still healthy 3 years after these sessions. There is little evidence to explain how this, the imagery and music, worked physically, but it worked for this woman.

Music Therapy Used With Psychiatric Patients


Crigler, Carol. (March 1966) The Role of the Music Therapist in a Therapeutic Community. The Journal of Music Therapy 3: 19-22. 306280006036410.

A male psychiatric ward in Stockton State Hospital in California was analyzed in this article. Attention was given to the actions and relationships of both staff and patients. The group of patients listened to music and eventually formed a combo, using “easy-success” instruments. Communication increased to enable some members of the group to begin to adjust to their environments. Activities such as listening to records or singing a song with their families resulted in improved verbal communication for these men. Music therapists can and should be an important part of the therapeutic community, a setting where the therapist can develop new ideas while utilizing the old.

Compiled by Alex Vang

Pain Management


Chiles, Fudge, Gray, & Heiser. (1997). The use of music during the immediate postoperative period. AORN Journal. 65, 4. 777-784.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Current Journals).

This study examines the effects of music on patients immediately after undergoing elective lumbar microdisectomies. Two groups of people were selected to take part in this study. The people in the first group, the treatment group, listened to music that they preferred for half an hour before the end of surgery and an hour immediately afterwards. The people in the second group, the control group, did not listen to music. Patient satisfaction, anxiety levels, and pain levels were evaluated at the end of the testing period. The results of the study were inconclusive. The amount of pain medication needed for each individual varied widely within each group. Also, according to the 10-point VAS system, pain levels ranged from very high scores to very low scores in individual groups. Patients in the treatment group, however, reported a higher satisfaction rate with their hospital stays; all said that music helped them relax and feel less anxious; and a few believed that music had eased their pain.

Funk, B. (1995). Using cognitive methods to control pain. Nursing-95. 25. 30.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

Drugs and ice on the surgical sight of a patient are not the only ways to reduce postoperative pain. Non-drug, cognitive methods may also help reduce pain. Some of these are guided imagery, auditory stimulation, progressive relaxation, meditation or prayer, music, or humor. Music is a particularly good method to control pain. Music can serve as a distraction to pain and help the patient gain control in managing treatment. It may also be used with many other methods for pain management.

Goldberg, J. (1987, January). Music as medicine - use in pain treatment. McCall's, 114. 105.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

According to this article, music may be able to prevent migraines, reduce anxiety, lower blood pressure, and encourage relaxation. Music can do this because it causes the body to release endorphins, which relieve pain and help a person relax. Mark Rider, a music therapist, uses a technique called entrainment to reduce pain. When using this technique, the client is told to produce a mental image of the pain. The music therapist uses music to reflect the image in the client's mind. Then the therapist slowly changes the music to something more soft or soothing. The client's image changes along with the music, thus changing the client's perception of the pain. Also, research into whether or not music can prevent migraines is taking place. So far the results have been promising.

Good, M. (1995). Relaxation techniques for surgical patients. American Journal of Nursing. 95. 38-42.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

Postoperative pain is worsened by anxiety, so it is crucial that the patient is calm and relaxed at all times, especially before ambulation. Unrelieved pain can have many negative effects. It can cause problems such as pneumonia from restricted air movement, lead to pulmonary secretion retention, and delay bowel and gastric function after surgery. To stop these problems, it is important for a patient to learn how to reduce their own pain by relaxing. Music is one way to teach a patient how to relax. Music that a patient likes can be used as distraction from pain. It can also be used in conjunction with other relaxation techniques such as controlled breathing. It is important that the music used is something the patient likes and has chosen. Also, it is important that the device used to play music is portable (so that the patient can carry it) and easy to manipulate.

Jacob, S. (1986). Soothing the ragged edge of pain: Bring on the music. American Journal of Nursing. 86. 1034.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

Ms. Cummings, an RN, had an idea to use music to reduce pain after observing the use of relaxation training tapes in Methodist Hospice Hospital's Home Care and Hospice in Memphis, Tennessee to reduce stress. By teaching residents to play the Autoharp, Ms. Cummings helped her patients take an active role in their therapy. She also began taping the music sessions and giving the tapes to their families.

Maize, D. M. (1992, August). Music's surprising power to heal. Reader's Digest, 141. 174-178.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

This article describes many examples of how music helps reduce pain. Marianne Strebely, who went through surgery after injury in a car accident, claims that "the music was better than medication." With music, Strebely did not need as much sedation during surgery and, when relaxing to music, was even able to go without her prescribed painkillers. Janet Lapp, a psychologist, studied 30 migraine sufferers. Those in the group who listened to music that they liked suffered less than those who were in the group that used biofeedback and relaxation techniques, and than those who were in the control group. Also, those who used music as therapy for migraines suffered only one sixth of the headaches noted in the other groups. They also reported that the headaches were easier to control and not as painful. Dr. Raymond Bahr, at Baltimore's St. Agnes Hospital says that listening to music created the same effect as 10 milligrams of Valium for those in the critical-care unit. Also, Susan Koletsky said that listening to a special program of music made the delivery of her second child much more pleasant; her first delivery had been a very painful experience. Dr. Berger of Ireland Cancer Center says that music is more than just enjoyable but can be a pain reliever used for something as common as going to the dentist.

Menegazzi, J. J. (1991, November). Music relieves pain, but not anxiety. RN, 54. 82.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Bounded Journals).

A study in a clinic in Pittsburgh shows that listening to music while having a laceration repaired helps to reduce pain. Those who chose to listen to music that they preferred had scores (subjective ten-point system) much lower than those who went without music. Music, however, did not seem to reduce the anxiety that comes when a laceration is being stitched up.

Music as medicine. Parents, 62. 14.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

According to this article, music has many benefits. Music can trigger the body's healing system, help children with a mental handicap and autism, aid in the learning of communication skills, and help people to relax. Raymond Bohr, M.D., at St. Agnes Hospital in Baltimore plays sedative music to patients in the critical care unit to reduce pain. Because the body does not have to deal with pain, it can begin to heal itself. Leslie Hunter used music therapy instead of pain medication during childbirth.

Music hath charms. PsychologyToday. 19. 54. (1985, December).
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

This article reviews the origins of music therapy. It says that music therapy has been used since biblical times but states that it was not until World War II that people began to recognize the wide variety of benefits that come from music. The article references Helen Bonny who has developed a technique for pain-therapy called GIM- Guided Imagery and Music. GIM "involves listening in a relaxed state to selected music, programmed tape, or live music…."

Sammon, J. T. (1997, September). March music - healing and music. J.A.M.A. 278. 816.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library - (Microfilm).

This article discusses the many effects music has on those listening to it. It talks about how music can be used to make someone happy, reduce psychological and physical stress, anxiety, isolation, and pain.

Ellen M. C. (1987). The Chronic Pain Control Workbook. Oakland: New Harbinger.
Call #: RB127 .C38 1987 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This resource is a step-by-step guide for coping with and overcoming pain. It is designed for the pain sufferer but also offers new insights for health professionals. The workbook walks the reader through the steps of coping with pain. The appendix describes how to make a personalized relaxation tape which could utilize words and music.

Sampson L. (1984). Conquering Pain. New York: Arco Publishers.
Call #: RB127 .L458 1984 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This book explores the new discoveries associated with relieving pain. The chapters "Pain and the Mind" and "Self Help" in particular deal with ways in which one could use music to help alleviate pain.

Donald A. H. (1996). Handbook of music psychology. Texas: IMR Press, San Antonio.
Call #: ML3830 .H2 1996 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This book explores various facets of music psychology. It includes articles by several different authors. The "Neuromusical Research" and "Responses to Music" chapters discuss the numerous scientific research projects that have taken place regarding the brain and how music can affect one’s state of mind.

Peters, J. S. (1987). Music Therapy. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield.
Call #: UWEC Textbook.

This book provides an overview of music therapy. It includes some of the theoretical concepts of music therapy and major areas and trends in music therapy. References to pain management are made throughout the book and include using music to reduce post-operative or chronic pain, to increase pain tolerance, to reduce pain perception and increase feelings of comfort, and to keep clients’ minds off of their pain.

Campbell, D. (1997). The Mozart effect: Tapping the power of music to heal the body, strengthen the mind, and unlock the creative spitit. New York: Avon Books.
Call #: ML3920 .C17 1997 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This book deals with how people can use music to deal with everything from anxiety to cancer, high blood pressure, chronic pain, dyslexia, and mental illness. Examples of easing pain addressed in this book are: using music to visualize pain and push it off of one’s body; guided imagery; toning and chanting; and harp therapy. Compact discs or cassettes may be purchased separately (Volume II is music for rest and relaxation to heal the body).

Turk, D. C., & Feldman, C. S. (1992). Noninvasive approaches to pain management in the terminally ill. New York: Haworth Press.
Call #: RB127 .N66 1992 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

Various authors have contributed to this book. The chapter "The Cognitive Behavioral Perspective on Pain Management in Terminal Illness" by Baruch Fishman offers a common-sense model and techniques (including music therapy) which are easy for both patients and health care professionals to understand and implement. Two main ideas are emphasized: 1) pain and suffering are not the same, and 2) patients can exercise substantial personal control over their thoughts, feelings, and behavior. The book further explains that, "Music can have a direct mood altering effect, as well as an indirect relaxing effect through the diversion of attention from pain and stress provoking stimuli."

Wen-hsien W. (1987). Pain management. New York: Human Sciences Press.
Call #: RB127 .P33235 1987 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This book contains chapters by various authors. Traditional methods of pain management are addressed with other types of therapy. Methods described in the chapters "Psychological Therapy for Chronic Pain" and "Meditation" describe methods which could be used in conjunction with music therapy.

Salerno, E., & Willens, J. S. (1996). Pain management handbook. Mosby-Year Book. St. Louis.
Call #: RB127 .S25 1996 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This handbook is to help clinicians become knowledgeable about the many recent advances in pain management. The book stresses the importance of assessing pain, taking action, and then reassessing the pain. Pages 223-224 describe music therapy as an alternative approach to pain management.

Gardner, K. (1997). Sounding the inner landscape. Element 1990, Rockport.
Call #: ML3920 .G14 1997 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This book was written with emphasis on the spiritual aspect of music and sound. It emphasizes the effects musicians can have on one’s good health and well-being. Examples in which pain is eased: through toning or making a groaning sound in order to break up the tension of pain; using melodies to help transcend physical pain; lowering the decibels of sound; blocking pain stimuli through activation of brain centers by use of drum sounds; and listening to oboe music in the keys of A-flat, A, or B-flat to ease sinus headaches.

Peter Michael Hamel, P. M. (1991). Through music to the self. Element 1991, Rockport.
Call #: ML3845 .H2513 1991 (UWEC McIntyre Library).

This book compares the effects of music of various world cultures. Various cultures use music in their own ways, including dealing with pain, mantra, medication, music therapy, breath and voice, and ‘one’s own sound.’ The "Social Practice and Exercise Methods" chapter shows practical applications of music.