A-Z List

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Internet Articles

Compliled by various students
May 9, 2000

Katie Lederer & Thea Morton - May 9, 2000


Internet Address: http://www.ncnow.com/pace/communication.htm

This web site explains how communication is exceedingly difficult for autistic children to learn. It gives suggestions of therapeutic interventions including music therapy, that help autistic children learn some form of communication.

Internet Address: http://www.1si.ukans.edu/beach/html/d2.htm

This site basically provides an explanation of autism spectrum disorder. It gives a definition, describes characteristics, and presents some treatment methods. This information should be known before using music therapy with an autistic child so one can understand the types of approaches that can be used.

Internet Address: http://www.itc-autism.com/music.htm

This section describes how ITC, Integrations Treatment Center, uses music to help with such skills as: motor, academic, communication, emotional and social. Music can be used as verbal or non-verbal communication. Music is also used at ITC for relaxing hyperactive children or describing tantrums they might have.

Internet Address: http://www.nyu.edu/education/music/nrobbins

This cite describes what is done at the Nordoff-Robbins Center for Music Therapy on the NYU campus. They work with adults, children, and adolescents with autism, as well as with people with other disorders. Here they train music therapists and students about many different topics. There is a large video and audio library of applications of improvisational music used with autistic children.

Internet Address: http://www.cnitelecom.com/html/nordoff_robbins.html

This site explains the Nordoff-Robbins approach to music therapy and how it can be used with people with a variety of diagnoses, including autism, developmental disabilities, cerebral palsy, emotional disturbance, and multiple handicaps, to name a few.

Internet Address: http://www.autism-society.org/packages/treatment-opitions.html

This site talks about how Music Therapy is used with autistic children to teach cognitive, motor, and daily living skills. It also talks about using auditory training since some autistic people are hypersensitive to sound.

Internet Address: http://home.att.net/~bkbrunk/school.html

This site describes how music therapy is used in schools. It describes I.D.E.A.’s definition and describes I.E.P. meetings. The site also describes how a student with autism would or would not be considered for music therapy in a school setting.

Internet Address: http://www.tomatis.net/autism.html

This web site discusses tomatis therapy which deals with the inner ear. It aids such populations as autism and dyslexia and helps improve balance and coordination. The ear is used, not only for hearing, but also for balance. Music gets through to the inner ear and affects balance and coordination.

Kelly Anthony - May 9, 2000


Internet Address: http://www.autism.org/music.html

This article describes what music therapy is and why it is especially helpful with children with Autism. The article focuses on music therapy and how it affects development and remediation of speech in children with Autism. For example, through vocal singing activities, speech can be developed. The article explains that since children with Autism have an unusually high sensitivity to music, music therapy is very useful in targeting non-musical goals.

Internet Address: http://www.autcom.org

This website offers many links to research opportunities dealing with Autism. The group is dedicated to offering information to better understand Autism. Music therapists could use this website for new and important research that is being done in Autism.

Internet Address: http://www.autism.com/ari/

The Autism Research Institute offers many links to different areas of research concerned with Autism. The site has many different topics and has updated research information. This website could be helpful to music therapists because it offers important background information about Autism that would be helpful to know for experiences and sessions.

Internet Address: http://www.autism.org

This site also had many resources of information on the continuing study of Autism. The topics ranged from topics for parents and teachers to newfound medications and treatments. The Center for the Study of Autism could also be a great resource for information on Autism for music therapists.

Internet Address: http://www.naar.org

This site contained information on the causes, prevention, and effective treatments of Autism. Music therapists will find this website helpful because it offers a lot of new information about what is being found in connection with Autism.

Jennifer Wilson - Nov. 30, 1999


In the description of the following citations, codes provide additional information to categorize that reference.

T= Therapy-oriented

F= Facts, basic information

M= Is helpful for music therapists

O= Cites an organization involved with autism and music therapy

S= See also another source on this site

Internet Address: http://www.mozartcenter.com

This web site describes an organization that works with a variety of special needs using music. Autistic individuals are hyper-sensitive to certain frequencies, and the Mozart center helps to desensitize these auditory irritations.

Internet Address: http://www.reiinstitute.com

This site provides information on Rhythm Entrainment Intervention (REI). REI is a music therapy program that uses rhythmic patterns to help people with developmental disabilities. The theory is that rhythmic patterns such as one of a drum can therapeutically affect the central nervous system. Therapy is individually designed for each client, focusing on rhythmic effects on neurobiological function.

Internet Address: http://www.unitedthrumusic.com

This site provides an excellent source for general information on autism and the treatment of autism through music therapy. It gives a three part therapy plan including using a drum, chanting, and using simple songs to engage autistic individuals in social activities or a learning task.

Internet Address: http://www.dokumenta.co.uk/tcd.html

This site describes a research conference held in which art, dance, music, and psychotherapists convene to present findings on creative outlets for people with learning disabilities and autism to express themselves. The most recent conference was held on November 11, 1999 in London, England. Nine speakers from around the world presented their studies.

Internet Address: http://www.tomatis.net/Tomatis_tomatis.html

The Spectrum Center uses the Tomatis Method in its sensory integration therapy with people with learning disabilities, dyslexia, ADD, autism and pervasive developmental delays, as well as a variety of other developmental disorders, stress, and depression. This source gives information on all of these conditions as well as on the treatment used under the Tomatis Method.

Kirsten Coons - May 9, 2000


Internet Address: http://www.unitedthrumusic.com/autism.html

This web cite deals with understanding autism first and then trying to explain how to reach the autistic child through music. Many autistic children have talent in music and they respond very well.

Internet Address: http://www.autism-society.org/autism.html

This source discusses how autism interferes with the normal development of the brain. Before you can understand how music therapy helps the autistic client, you have to be able to understand autism itself. Nearly 400,000 people in the U. S. today have autism. This cite deals with things such as what causes it, how it’s diagnosed, and what the symptoms are.

Internet Address: http://www.musictherapy.org/index.html

This cite contains general information about music therapy. There is a part that describes how it’s used to help with mental illnesses and autism. It also gives other locations to use to find information.

Katie Krause, 2007


Internet Address: http://apt.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi+10.1043%2F0734-6875(2000)018%5B0013%3AAMOMTA%5D2.3.CO%3B2&ct=1
“A Method of Music Therapy Assessment for the Diagnosis of Autism and Communication Disorders in Children,” from Music Therapy Perspectives.  This article is by Tony Wigram of Harper House Children’s Services. The article states that music therapy plays a significant role in the diagnosis and assessment of children and adults with pervasive developmental disorders. It also states that music therapy assessment reveals strengths and weaknesses in core impairments, including social interaction and communication. The identification and analysis of musical events in improvisational music therapy using Bruscia’s Improvisation Assessment Profiles is described and illustrated through a case example. The results offer clear evidence of musical material to support the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reflections of the subjective and objective parameters of music therapy assessment are discussed, and the necessity for standardized models of assessment in music therapy is considered for future development.

Internet Address: http://apt.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1043%2F0022-2917(2004)041%5B0090%3AMIFCA%5D2.0.CO%3B2
“Music in Intervention for Children and Adolescents with Autism: A Meta-Analysis,” from Journal  of Music Therapy. This article by Jennifer Whipple includes a meta-analysis of 12 dependent variables from 9 quantitative studies comparing music to no-music conditions during treatment of children and adolescents with autism. All effects were in a positive direction, indicating benefits of the use of music in intervention. Included studies were described in terms of type of dependent variables measured; theoretical approach; # of subjects in treatment sessions; participation in and use, selection, and presentation of music researcher discipline; published or unpublished source; and subject age. Clinical implications as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.

Internet Address: http://apt.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1043%2F0734-6875(2000)018%5B0131%3AEOMTUA%5D2.3.CO%3B2
“The Effects of Music Therapy upon an Adult Male with Autism and Mental Retardation: A Four-Year Case Study,” Music Therapy Perspectives. This research by Kathleen M. Wagner is a case study that describes how an adult male with autism and mental retardation participated in music therapy sessions during four years from 1993-1997. Treatment goals, objectives, and music therapy activities are discussed. The client’s responses while on usual medications and while those medications were adjusted are presented. Clinical observations of treatment progress and a tally of behavioral objectives indicated that a) music therapy was a valuable ongoing leisure activity for the client; b) certain music and non-music behavioral objectives were achieved and maintained over time and others were not as consistent; and c) stable medication affected the client’s ability to participate in music therapy sessions. Implications for future research are discussed.  

Internet Address: http://www.autism.org/music.html
“Music Therapy and Language for the autistic child,” by Myra J. Staum, director and professor of Music Therapy at Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, states that Music Therapy is the unique application of music to enhance personal lives by creating positive changes in human behavior. She says that music is effective because it is a nonverbal form of communication, is a natural reinforce, is immediate in time and provides motivation for practicing non-musical skills. Music Therapy is described as particularly useful with children with autism owing in part to the nonverbal, nonthreatening nature of the medium. Children with autism have unusual sensitivities to music. Music therapists traditionally work with children with autism because of this unusual responsiveness which is adaptable to non-music goals. She gives examples of activities and more detailed information on the use of music therapy with children with autism.

Internet Address: http://www.cadenzamusictherapy.com/CanYourChildBenefit.html
“Can Your Child Benefit?” This source states that music therapy can be a rich and rewarding addition to a comprehensive program for children with autism. It differentiates between music educators and music therapists. “Music therapy and general music education are distinct disciplines and professions; the intent of the services themselves set them apart. While music educators strive to teach music-related skills, abilities, and appreciation, music therapists strive to use music to accomplish non-musical goals such as improving behavior, attention span, receptive and expressive language skills, and social skills.” The author says that music educators may not have the appropriate training to provide music therapy for a child with disabilities and that there is an abundance of research and literature spanning over 30 years to support the use of music therapy with children on the spectrum. She provides more information on how, specifically, a music therapist may help and what activities they may use and strategies they use.