A-Z List


Alzheimer's Disease

Journal Articles

Compiled by Rachel Tembreull, Katie Solberg, Julia Bonack, Shelly Berg, Cheryle Busch, Jessie Marx, and K.Kimminau

Database by Jeffrey Miller - 2000

Click on the links below to obtain topic-related information on this population


Caregivers

Top

Thomas, D., Heitman, R., and Alexander, T. "The effects of music on bathing cooperation for residents with dementia." Journal of Music Therapy, 34 No. 7 (1997): 247-253. Location- journals microfilm.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate music’s effect on bathing cooperation among a group of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Music was used to reduce anxiety by creating an atmosphere that was interpreted as safe and non-threatening. The type of music used in this study was individualized for each subject. A tape of music to be played during the study was developed by the help of family members with the information they provided. Results suggested that the discretionary use of music while bathing might have some effect on delaying the onset of the more severe forms of agitation. This source also gives guidance for caregivers to implement while bathing a client.


Communication, Language Skills, and Verbalization

Top

Smith, Georgia H. "A Comparison of the Effect of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." Music Therapy – The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy. Vol. 6A, No. 1. (1986). Pg. 41-56.

For this study, 12 women aged 71-92 were placed into groups of three. Each group received sessions of musically cued reminiscence (using familiar songs and questions to encourage discussion), verbally cued reminiscence (using questions to encourage discussion), and musical activity (using familiar songs without encouraging discussion). It was found that musically cued reminiscence and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores, but only musical activities increased total cognition scores.

Dawson, Pam, and Kline, Karen, and Wells, Donna L. Enhancing the Abilities of Persons with Alzheimer's. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1993. Location-Main Stacks.

This book provides a small background about Alzheimer's Disease. It describes how to relate to people with Alzheimer's, give them care, and try to understand what they are feeling. Language and verbal expression of ideas are affected by the disease. Methods of determining an individuals social, language, and expressive abilities are illustrated. This resource is a useful tool for music therapists to use for assessment as well as treatment planning.

Gidley, Isobelle, and Shears Richard. We Never Say Goodbye; the Tragedy of Alzheimer's Disease. George Allan and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

In the first stages of Alzheimer's disease memory goes, and the patient may notice before anyone else. There is no specific pattern that the disease follows. Problems with language and organization of body movements may follow. Family members may be confused that a pattern is not being followed. Many patients go into denial when they realize what is happening. They may worry about becoming a burden to their family. Some die within four to five years and others will die very slowly. This experience can be very painful for family members. Music may be helpful in preserving language and motor skills. It is supportive for both patients and families.

Arnst, Catherine. "Songs that lead down memory lane." Business Week, October 6, issue 3547, (1997): 75. Location-journals microfilm.

This article discussed Alzheimer’s disease in elderly patients. It also described the effect of this disease on memories. However, in many Alzheimer’s patients it is not the memories that are gone, but rather the ability to retrieve them. The study described the effectiveness of music for retrieval. It found that dementia patients could recall long-term memories after hearing familiar tunes. The study compared the outcome of memory retrieval in two groups, one that was oriented with music and the other with verbalization. Results concluded that music therapy is a valuable tool to enhance the quality of life for patients with dementia.

Sambandham, M., and Schirm, V. "Music as a nursing intervention for residents with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care." Geriatric Nursing: American Journal of Care for the Aging, 16 No. 2 (1995): 79. Location- journals microfilm.

Music therapy resulted in increased social interaction of residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects continued to respond to music therapy even as the disease progressed. In one group, singing promoted more functional social and physical behaviors than previously noted. The article noted that agitated behaviors decreased during music sessions. For many Alzheimer’s patients the use of music enables communication. The study was designed to examine effects of music sessions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care as implemented by a nurse with no formal training in music therapy. Results showed a high degree of variability in subjects’ responses to music sessions. Also shown was improvement in memory and reminiscing abilities of the residents.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:
  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. Environmental cues to support independence.
Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.

Feil, Neil. The Validation Breakthrough. Baltimore. Health Professions Press Inc., 1993. Location – Main Stacks.

Validation is a therapy for communicating with those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. This therapy is based on an attitude of respect and empathy for the patient. Music is one component of validation therapy. The author writes that early, learned melodies return when words have gone. Music can be used to enforce communication.

Goldsmith, Malcolm. Hearing the Voice of People with Dementia. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishing, 1993. Location – Main Stacks.

The author tells of how a music therapist enabled people with dementia to express emotions by playing various percussion instruments. A careful selection of music was used to mirror moods and express repressed feelings. Music therapy is effective in stimulating interest and communication.

Ostuni, Elizabeth. Getting Through: Communicating When Someone You Care For Has Alzheimer’s Disease. New Jersey. The Speech Bin, 1986. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses the use of music activities as a resource for communication. The author states that music can be used to relieve anxiety or increase blood and oxygen flow to provide a stimulus. Familiar tunes or records can be used for reminiscence.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status. Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:
  • The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  • Memory impairment
  • Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  • The state of consciousness
Barbara Balch and Dennis Bathony-Kitsz. "Composing a new language".


Cooperation and Attention

Top

Thomas, D., Heitman, R., and Alexander, T. "The effects of music on bathing cooperation for residents with dementia." Journal of Music Therapy, 34 No. 7 (1997): 247-253. Location- journals microfilm.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate music’s effect on bathing cooperation among a group of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Music was used to reduce anxiety by creating an atmosphere that was interpreted as safe and non-threatening. The type of music used in this study was individualized for each subject. A tape of music to be played during the study was developed by the help of family members with the information they provided. Results suggested that the discretionary use of music while bathing might have some effect on delaying the onset of the more severe forms of agitation. This source also gives guidance for caregivers to implement while bathing a client.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.


Coordination and Motor Skill Functioning

Top

Gidley, Isobelle, and Shears Richard. We Never Say Goodbye; the Tragedy of Alzheimer's Disease. George Allan and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

In the first stages of Alzheimer's disease memory goes, and the patient may notice before anyone else. There is no specific pattern that the disease follows. Problems with language and organization of body movements may follow. Family members may be confused that a pattern is not being followed. Many patients go into denial when they realize what is happening. They may worry about becoming a burden to their family. Some die within four to five years and others will die very slowly. This experience can be very painful for family members. Music may be helpful in preserving language and motor skills. It is supportive for both patients and families.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:
  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. Environmental cues to support independence.
Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.

Zgola, Jitka. Doing Things. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses activities to use to stimulate the sensory component and the socialization in the Alzheimer’s patient. Dancing to music can be used as a gross motor skills activity, sing-alongs as a social activity, and listening to music as a sensory activity. Music with Alzheimer’s patients gives the client the opportunity to practice well-maintained social skills and participate in social interchange.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status. Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:
  • The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  • Memory impairment
  • Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  • The state of consciousness



Emotions and Emotional Expression

Top

Lipe, Anne W. "Using Music Therapy to Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 9. (1991). Pg. 102-105.

This case study examined a 69-year-old white woman who had played the piano when she was younger. Through the music therapy sessions, she was able to hum melodies after given the name of a song. Her general attitude was "brightened" and she was able to better express herself through music after the sessions.

Douglas, Donna, RMT-BC. Accent on Rhythm; Music Activities for the Aged. MMB Music, Inc., 1981. Location-Main Stacks.

Most patients with Alzheimer's Disease are elderly. It is important to use age appropriate activities when working with them. This book provides good examples of different activities that work well with elderly patients. Music is suggested to accompany many of the activities. The music makes the activities more enjoyable, works as a motivator, helps patients work together, and helps them express their emotions. The author found that the most popular activity was the production of a variety show. This book includes suggestions for a production, as well as many other useful activities.

Dawson, Pam, and Kline, Karen, and Wells, Donna L. Enhancing the Abilities of Persons with Alzheimer's. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1993. Location-Main Stacks.

This book provides a small background about Alzheimer's Disease. It describes how to relate to people with Alzheimer's, give them care, and try to understand what they are feeling. Language and verbal expression of ideas are affected by the disease. Methods of determining an individuals social, language, and expressive abilities are illustrated. This resource is a useful tool for music therapists to use for assessment as well as treatment planning.

Gruetzner, Howard. Alzheimer's: A Caregiver's Source Guide and Source Book. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological condition that impairs the brain's functioning. This impairment results in deficient thinking and remembering. Patients may become irritated, agitated and depressed. Understanding Alzheimer's and knowing how to respond to it can be difficult. Many times people respond with annoyance, frustration, and anger. These responses are not good for the Alzheimer's patient. This book describes different approaches to use when dealing with different situations.

Smith, Bonnie Baird, and Bennett, Mary Babcock, and Knudson, Lisa, RMT-BC. A Son to Set Me Free. Allied Health and Human Services, 1995. Location - GOV PUB.

Interaction with others is important for people with Alzheimer's. Playing musical instruments in a large group setting works well for this. Patients with memory loss may need to see the instrument demonstrated first. Music can help patients express emotions and share significant past memories.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:
  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. .Environmental cues to support independence.
Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.

Goldsmith, Malcolm. Hearing the Voice of People with Dementia. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishing, 1993. Location – Main Stacks.

The author tells of how a music therapist enabled people with dementia to express emotions by playing various percussion instruments. A careful selection of music was used to mirror moods and express repressed feelings. Music therapy is effective in stimulating interest and communication.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status. Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:
  • The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  • Memory impairment
  • Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  • The state of consciousness


Moore, Randal S., and Staum, Myra J., and Broutons, Melissa. Journal of Music Therapy . Vol. 29-30. 1992-93. " Music Preferences for the Elderly". Location-Main Stacks.

Data was collected from 514 persons over 65 years of age. These subjects had physical, emotional, and cognitive disabilities. Results:
  • Patriotic and popular songs are preferred
  • Vocal ranges from F3 to C5 for women and an octave lower for men represent the best pitch range to use.
  • Slower and moderate tempos are preferable.
  • Live and recorded accompaniments are preferred over synthesized music.


Aronson, Miriam K. Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease. 1988. Location-MainStacks.

The Alzheimer’s process affects specific nerve cells, the basal cholinergic projection system. This system holds an enzyme which enables cells to form acetycholine, a chemical that is used to transmit signals to other cells. Evidence also shows that AD is linked with destruction of the neural system. Serotonin also plays an important part in the emotional stages of AD. More than 15- 20 percent of brain cells in the cerebral cortex degenerates- - - these cells affect the cognition of a person. Refer to Dr. Dale Taylor’s book, Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy, for an explanation of the connection between music and physiological changes.


Memory, Reminiscence, and Word Recall

Top

Smith, Georgia H. "A Comparison of the Effect of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." Music Therapy – The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy. Vol. 6A, No. 1. (1986). Pg. 41-56.

For this study, 12 women aged 71-92 were placed into groups of three. Each group received sessions of musically cued reminiscence (using familiar songs and questions to encourage discussion), verbally cued reminiscence (using questions to encourage discussion), and musical activity (using familiar songs without encouraging discussion). It was found that musically cued reminiscence and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores, but only musical activities increased total cognition scores.

Pollack, Nancy J. and Namazi, Kevan H. "The Effect of Music Participation on the Social Behavior of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 1. (Spring 1992). Pg. 54-67.

Three men and five women aged 67-85 with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s were chosen for this study. All but one patient had participated in music therapy sessions prior to the study. The patients were observed in activities before and after therapy sessions in order to determine if there was an increase in socialization after a music therapy session. All patients increased social interaction and decreased in non-social interaction. After a few sessions, all patients participated enthusiastically in sessions.

Cordrey, Cindy, CMT-BC. Hidden Treasures; Music and Memory Activities for People with Alzheimer's. G and H Printing, Mt. Airy, Maryland, 1994. Location- Main Stacks.

Goals in working with people with Alzheimer’s Disease include creating a stimulating and caring environment that encourages participation and socialization, as well as developing maximum levels of functioning. Patients need to experience laughter, fun, and recover treasured lost memories. This book contains music activities that will help stimulate memories and provide pleasant experiences for Alzheimer's patients.

Gruetzner, Howard. Alzheimer's: A Caregiver's Source Guide and Source Book. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological condition that impairs the brain's functioning. This impairment results in deficient thinking and remembering. Patients may become irritated, agitated, and depressed. Understanding Alzheimer's and knowing how to respond to it can be difficult. Many times people respond with annoyance, frustration, and anger. These responses are not good for the Alzheimer's patient. This book describes different approaches to use when dealing with different situations.

Smith, Bonnie Baird, and Bennett, Mary Babcock, and Knudson, Lisa, RMT-BC. A Son to Set Me Free. Allied Health and Human Services, 1995. Location- GOV PUB.

Interaction with others is important for people with Alzheimer's. Playing musical instruments in a large group setting works well for this. Patients with memory loss may need to see the instrument demonstrated first. Music can help patients express emotions and share significant past memories.

Gidley, Isobelle, and Shears Richard. We Never Say Goodbye; the Tragedy of Alzheimer's Disease. George Allan and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

In the first stages of Alzheimer's disease memory goes, and the patient may notice before anyone else. There is no specific pattern that the disease follows. Problems with language and organization of body movements may follow. Family members may be confused that a pattern is not being followed. Many patients go into denial when they realize what is happening. They may worry about becoming a burden to their family. Some die within four to five years and others will die very slowly. This experience can be very painful for family members. Music may be helpful in preserving language and motor skills. It is supportive for both patients and families.

Arnst, Catherine. "Songs that lead down memory lane." Business Week, October 6, issue 3547, (1997): 75. Location-journals microfilm.

This article discussed Alzheimer’s disease in elderly patients. It also described the effect of this disease on memories. However, in many Alzheimer’s patients it is not the memories that are gone, but rather the ability to retrieve them. The study described the effectiveness of music for retrieval. It found that dementia patients could recall long-term memories after hearing familiar tunes. The study compared the outcome of memory retrieval in two groups, one that was oriented with music and the other with verbalization. Results concluded that music therapy is a valuable tool to enhance the quality of life for patients with dementia.

Sambandham, M., and Schirm, V. "Music as a nursing intervention for residents with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care." Geriatric Nursing: American Journal of Care for the Aging, 16 No. 2 (1995): 79. Location- journals microfilm.

Music therapy resulted in increased social interaction of residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects continued to respond to music therapy even as the disease progressed. In one group, singing promoted more functional social and physical behaviors than previously noted. The article noted that agitated behaviors decreased during music sessions. For many Alzheimer’s patients the use of music enables communication. The study was designed to examine effects of music sessions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care as implemented by a nurse with no formal training in music therapy. Results showed a high degree of variability in subjects’ responses to music sessions. Also shown was improvement in memory and reminiscing abilities of the residents.

Ansdell, Gary. Music for Life. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1995. Location – Main Stacks.

The author of this book discusses how music establishes an associative connection within the long-term memory. The author stresses the importance of ensuring that this musical memory be used in the present and not trap the patient in the past. The author suggests beginning with improvisation before working with familiar melodies.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:
  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. 3.New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. Environmental cues to support independence.
Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.

Ostuni, Elizabeth. Getting Through: Communicating When Someone You Care For Has Alzheimer’s Disease. New Jersey. The Speech Bin, 1986. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses the use of music activities as a resource for communication. The author states that music can be used to relieve anxiety or increase blood and oxygen flow to provide a stimulus. Familiar tunes or records can be used for reminiscence.

Smith, Georgia. "A Comparison of the Effects of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy, 6A No.1 (1986): 30. Location – Journals Bound.

The article reports on a study that shows the effects of three approaches on Alzheimer’s subjects. The approaches include musically cued reminiscence, verbally cued reminiscence, and music alone. The results showed that musically cued and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores but not orientation, attention, or total scores. Music activity increased total scores. The results suggest that music may be useful in treatment for the Alzheimer’s disease patient.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status.

Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:

  1. The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  2. Memory impairment
  3. Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  4. The state of consciousness


Cohen, Gene D. M. D., Ph.D. The Brain in Human Aging. Vol. 23. Springer Publishing Company 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer’s Disease is a degenerative brain disorder caused by impairment of memory and other intellectual functions, along with behavior deficits. The disorder is gradual and progressive, affecting some slowly over time and some others in only a short while. The book will help a music therapist understand the process of dementia.

HEARING before the Special Committee on Aging- United States Senate; One Hundred Second Congress- First Session. Washington DC, August 1, 1991. Serial No.102-9

Printed for the use of the Special Committee of Aging. Location-Government Publications. This reserve includes a woman whose husband had Alzheimer’s Disease. She talks from the standpoint of a wife about the stages and describes how the disease slowly took control of her husband. She explains how music seemed to bring her husband alive. Activities used by the music therapist are presented. Music helps create a wide range of responses with elderly. It maybe simulative or sedative, may improve memory, can help with associations, and is a stimulus for reminiscence.

National Association for Music Therapy. Journal of Music Therapy. Vol. 27-28 (1990-1). Location-Main Stacks.

Reminiscence is the process of reviving past events and experience. Certain songs are found to have an effect on the remembering of certain times and events, for " aging" adults. The repertoire list includes these songs: For Me and My Gal, Whispering, April showers, and Chattanooga Choo Choo.


Dancing and Movement

Top

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

York, Elizabeth. "The Development of a Quantitative Music Skills Test for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 4. (Winter 1994). Pg. 280-296.

Forty patients aged 58-98 participated in activities such as singing songs and adding rhythmic accompaniments, identification of instrument sounds, repetition of melodies, and association of rhythm and movement. Singing proved to be the most effective for a majority of the patients.

Karras, Beckie. You Bring Out the Music in Me. The Haworth Press, 1987. Location-Main Stacks.

Music in nursing homes is very important. Music can help an elderly individual grow with greater self-esteem and less loneliness. The author described different studies and articles that demonstrated how music was beneficial with elderly patients. The studies included using music combined with dance, exercise, relaxation, etc. One elderly woman with Alzheimer's Disease mumbled "mamamamama" all day long. When headphones were placed on her, she smiled, swayed to the music, and her mumbling stopped. Music can be helpful in working with elderly people with Alzheimer's Disease.

Clair, Alicia Ann, PHD, MT-BC. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Health Professions Press, Inc., 1996. Location-Main Stacks.

In the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease, music may relieve fear and some symptoms of depression. It is most effective when the activities use skills that have been practiced over many years and have personal significance. People with Alzheimer's mat respond to music by tapping their feet, clapping, or dancing. Through music, Alzheimer's patients can continue to interact with others.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Zgola, Jitka. Doing Things. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses activities to use to stimulate the sensory component and the socialization in the Alzheimer’s patient. Dancing to music can be used as a gross motor skills activity, sing-alongs as a social activity, and listening to music as a sensory activity. Music with Alzheimer’s patients gives the client the opportunity to practice well-maintained social skills and participate in social interchange.


Singing

Top

Lipe, Anne W. "Using Music Therapy to Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 9. (1991). Pg. 102-105

This case study examined a 69-year-old white woman who had played the piano when she was younger. Through the music therapy sessions, she was able to hum melodies after given the name of a song. Her general attitude was "brightened" and she was able to better express herself through music after the sessions.

Clair, Alicia A. and Bernstein, Barry. "A Comparison of Singing, Vibrotactile and Nonvibrotactile Instrumental Playing Responses in Severely Regressed Persons with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 27, No. 3. (Fall 1990). Pg. 119-125.

Six men aged 62-73 were chosen for this study. Vibrotactile portions of the sessions involved placing a hand drum in the lap of the patient. Nonvibrotactile portions involved the music therapist holding the drum in front of the patient. Singing was led by the music therapist, and the patients were encouraged to join in singing. Participation was highest when the drum was placed in patient laps, whereas there was little to no participation in singing exercises. Only one patient sang, and he had sung with a band as an adult. His participation decreased as his dementia progressed.

Prickett, Carol A. and Moore, Randall S. "The Use of Music to Aid Memory of Alzheimer’s Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association of Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 2. (Summer 1991). Pg. 101-110.

Individual assessments were given to six women and four men aged 69-87. The therapist sang familiar and unfamiliar songs and rhythmically recited with familiar and unfamiliar short poems. Songs were sung twice each session. During the second time, the patient was asked to join in on any words remembered. During the singing, even when patients couldn’t remember any words, they often attempted to hum or pat out beats. During the readings, if they didn’t remember any words, they just sat quietly and listened.

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

York, Elizabeth. "The Development of a Quantitative Music Skills Test for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 4. (Winter 1994). Pg. 280-296.

Forty patients aged 58-98 participated in activities such as singing songs and adding rhythmic accompaniments, identification of instrument sounds, repetition of melodies, and association of rhythm and movement. Singing proved to be the most effective for a majority of the patients.

Carruth, Ellen K. "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 34, No. 3. (Fall 1997). Pg. 165-186.

In this study, seven women who were 79-90 years old participated in four sessions weekly in order to work on name-face recognition using singing. In most cases, the time it took for patients to associate faces with names decreased with the use of music.

Olderog-Millard, Kristine A. and Smith, Jeffrey M. "The Influence of Group Singing Therapy on the Behavior of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 5, No. 2. (Summer 1989). Pg. 58-70.

The patients, seven women and three men aged 71-98 years, were observed after each session in which singing and discussion was encouraged. Most of the patients participated in the singing, and there was a significant increase in the amount of social activities in all patients.

Sambandham, M., and Schirm, V. "Music as a nursing intervention for residents with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care." Geriatric Nursing: American Journal of Care for the Aging, 16 No. 2 (1995): 79. Location- journals microfilm.

Music therapy resulted in increased social interaction of residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects continued to respond to music therapy even as the disease progressed. In one group, singing promoted more functional social and physical behaviors than previously noted. The article noted that agitated behaviors decreased during music sessions. For many Alzheimer’s patients the use of music enables communication. The study was designed to examine effects of music sessions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care as implemented by a nurse with no formal training in music therapy. Results showed a high degree of variability in subjects’ responses to music sessions. Also shown was improvement in memory and reminiscing abilities of the residents.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Zgola, Jitka. Doing Things. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses activities to use to stimulate the sensory component and the socialization in the Alzheimer’s patient. Dancing to music can be used as a gross motor skills activity, sing-alongs as a social activity, and listening to music as a sensory activity. Music with Alzheimer’s patients gives the client the opportunity to practice well-maintained social skills and participate in social interchange.

Moore, Randal S., and Staum, Myra J., and Broutons, Melissa. Journal of Music Therapy . Vol. 29-30. 1992-93. " Music Preferences for the Elderly". Location-Main Stacks.

Data was collected from 514 persons over 65 years of age. These subjects had physical, emotional, and cognitive disabilities.

Results:

  • Patriotic and popular songs are preferred
  • Vocal ranges from F3 to C5 for women and an octave lower for men represent the best pitch range to use.
  • Slower and moderate tempos are preferable.
  • Live and recorded accompaniments are preferred over synthesized music.



Clapping and Foot Tapping

Top

Clair, Alicia Ann, PHD, MT-BC. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Health Professions Press, Inc., 1996. Location-Main Stacks.

In the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease, music may relieve fear and some symptoms of depression. It is most effective when the activities use skills that have been practiced over many years and have personal significance. People with Alzheimer's mat respond to music by tapping their feet, clapping, or dancing. Through music, Alzheimer's patients can continue to interact with others.


Rhythm Exercises and Movement

Top

Prickett, Carol A. and Moore, Randall S. "The Use of Music to Aid Memory of Alzheimer’s Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association of Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 2. (Summer 1991). Pg. 101-110.

Individual assessments were given to six women and four men aged 69-87. The therapist sang familiar and unfamiliar songs and rhythmically recited with familiar and unfamiliar short poems. Songs were sung twice each session. During the second time, the patient was asked to join in on any words remembered. During the singing, even when patients couldn’t remember any words, they often attempted to hum or pat out beats. During the readings, if they didn’t remember any words, they just sat quietly and listened.

York, Elizabeth. "The Development of a Quantitative Music Skills Test for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 4. (Winter 1994). Pg. 280-296.

Forty patients aged 58-98 participated in activities such as singing songs and adding rhythmic accompaniments, identification of instrument sounds, repetition of melodies, and association of rhythm and movement. Singing proved to be the most effective for a majority of the patients.

Elliot, Jerold E., Re. D., and Sorg-Elliot, Judith A., MA. Recreation Programming and Activities. Venture Publishing, Inc., 1991. Location-Main Stacks.

This book was written to provide quality recreation programs for older adults. It covers everything from planning to staffing therapeutic events. One chapter includes different music activities for older adults. Different activities include story telling, rhythm bands, band concerts, name that tune, and musical charades. A high level of musical talent is not needed to lead these activities. These are activities that may benefit older adults and that they will enjoy.


Background Music and Listening Exercises

Top

Prickett, Carol A. and Moore, Randall S. "The Use of Music to Aid Memory of Alzheimer’s Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association of Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 2. (Summer 1991). Pg. 101-110.

Individual assessments were given to six women and four men aged 69-87. The therapist sang familiar and unfamiliar songs and rhythmically recited with familiar and unfamiliar short poems. Songs were sung twice each session. During the second time, the patient was asked to join in on any words remembered. During the singing, even when patients couldn’t remember any words, they often attempted to hum or pat out beats. During the readings, if they didn’t remember any words, they just sat quietly and listened.

Groene, Robert W. II. "The Effectiveness of Music Therapy 1:1 Intervention with Individuals Having Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 30, No. 3. (Fall 1993). Pg. 138-157.

Sessions were conducted to measure wandering during reading sessions for 16 women and 14 men aged 60-91. The presence of music during the reading sessions increased seating/proximity and decreased wandering in the patients.

Thomas, D., Heitman, R., and Alexander, T. "The effects of music on bathing cooperation for residents with dementia." Journal of Music Therapy, 34 No. 7 (1997): 247-253. Location- journals microfilm.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate music’s effect on bathing cooperation among a group of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Music was used to reduce anxiety by creating an atmosphere that was interpreted as safe and non-threatening. The type of music used in this study was individualized for each subject. A tape of music to be played during the study was developed by the help of family members with the information they provided. Results suggested that the discretionary use of music while bathing might have some effect on delaying the onset of the more severe forms of agitation. This source also gives guidance for caregivers to implement while bathing a client.

Mace, Nancy L. & Peter V. Rabins, MD. The 36-Hour Day. Baltimore. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996. Location – Main Stacks.

The author states that those with severe memory loss seem to retain a capacity to enjoy familiar tunes. The author suggests playing soft music to help one with Alzheimer’s disease fall asleep and avoid night wandering.

Markin, RE The Alzheimer’s Cope Book. New York. Carol Publishing Group, 1992. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses how music therapy is useful with the Alzheimer’s patient. Music must be chosen carefully. Markin warns that patients may be frustrated when not able to remember the words to familiar songs. The author suggests using new age music because of its calming affect. New age music can help the patients sleep and discourage wandering.

Zgola, Jitka. Doing Things. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses activities to use to stimulate the sensory component and the socialization in the Alzheimer’s patient. Dancing to music can be used as a gross motor skills activity, sing-alongs as a social activity, and listening to music as a sensory activity. Music with Alzheimer’s patients gives the client the opportunity to practice well-maintained social skills and participate in social interchange.


Lyric Analysis and Songwriting

Top

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

Silber, F., and Hes, J. "The use of songwriting with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No. 1 (1995): 31-34. Location-journals bound.

This study examined the value of song writing with patients, who ranged from 62 to 84 years and were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The men and women participated in song writing exercises led by a music therapist. Exercises included writing songs based on images and descriptions of seasons and themes of love and stages of life. Results concluded that, based on the preservation of memory for tunes and melodies, patients were able to write songs when assisted by stimuli and provided with encouragement. This activity provided pleasure and social interaction.


Instruments

Top

Clair, Alicia A. and Bernstein, Barry. "A Comparison of Singing, Vibrotactile and Nonvibrotactile Instrumental Playing Responses in Severely Regressed Persons with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 27, No. 3. (Fall 1990). Pg. 119-125.

Six men aged 62-73 were chosen for this study. Vibrotactile portions of the sessions involved placing a hand drum in the lap of the patient. Nonvibrotactile portions involved the music therapist holding the drum in front of the patient. Singing was led by the music therapist, and the patients were encouraged to join in singing. Participation was highest when the drum was placed in patient laps, whereas there was little to no participation in singing exercises. Only one patient sang, and he had sung with a band as an adult. His participation decreased as his dementia progressed.

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

York, Elizabeth. "The Development of a Quantitative Music Skills Test for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 4. (Winter 1994). Pg. 280-296.

Forty patients aged 58-98 participated in activities such as singing songs and adding rhythmic accompaniments, identification of instrument sounds, repetition of melodies, and association of rhythm and movement. Singing proved to be the most effective for a majority of the patients.

Smith, Bonnie Baird, and Bennett, Mary Babcock, and Knudson, Lisa, RMT-BC. A Son to Set Me Free. Allied Health and Human Services, 1995. Location- GOV PUB.

Interaction with others is important for people with Alzheimer's. Playing musical instruments in a large group setting works well for this. Patients with memory loss may need to see the instrument demonstrated first. Music can help patients express emotions and share significant past memories.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Goldsmith, Malcolm. Hearing the Voice of People with Dementia. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishing, 1993. Location – Main Stacks.

The author tells of how a music therapist enabled people with dementia to express emotions by playing various percussion instruments. A careful selection of music was used to mirror moods and express repressed feelings. Music therapy is effective in stimulating interest and communication.


Games and Performances

Top

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

Douglas, Donna, RMT-BC. Accent on Rhythm; Music Activities for the Aged. MMB Music, Inc., 1981. Location-Main Stacks.

Most patients with Alzheimer's Disease are elderly. It is important to use age appropriate activities when working with them. This book provides good examples of different activities that work well with elderly patients. Music is suggested to accompany many of the activities. The music makes the activities more enjoyable, works as a motivator, helps patients work together, and helps them express their emotions. The author found that the most popular activity was the production of a variety show. This book includes suggestions for a production, as well as many other useful activities.

Elliot, Jerold E., Re. D., and Sorg-Elliot, Judith A., MA. Recreation Programming and Activities. Venture Publishing, Inc., 1991. Location-Main Stacks.

This book was written to provide quality recreation programs for older adults. It covers everything from planning to staffing therapeutic events. One chapter includes different music activities for older adults. Different activities include story telling, rhythm bands, band concerts, name that tune, and musical charades. A high level of musical talent is not needed to lead these activities. These are activities that may benefit older adults and that they will enjoy.


Improvisation

Top

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

Ansdell, Gary. Music for Life. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1995. Location – Main Stacks.

The author of this book discusses how music establishes an associative connection within the long-term memory. The author stresses the importance of ensuring that this musical memory be used in the present and not trap the patient in the past. The author suggests beginning with improvisation before working with familiar melodies.


Familiar songs

Top

Smith, Georgia H. "A Comparison of the Effect of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." Music Therapy – The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy. Vol. 6A, No. 1. (1986). Pg. 41-56.

For this study, 12 women aged 71-92 were placed into groups of three. Each group received sessions of musically cued reminiscence (using familiar songs and questions to encourage discussion), verbally cued reminiscence (using questions to encourage discussion), and musical activity (using familiar songs without encouraging discussion). It was found that musically cued reminiscence and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores, but only musical activities increased total cognition scores.

Prickett, Carol A. and Moore, Randall S. "The Use of Music to Aid Memory of Alzheimer’s Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association of Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 2. (Summer 1991). Pg. 101-110

Individual assessments were given to six women and four men aged 69-87. The therapist sang familiar and unfamiliar songs and rhythmically recited with familiar and unfamiliar short poems. Songs were sung twice each session. During the second time, the patient was asked to join in on any words remembered. During the singing, even when patients couldn’t remember any words, they often attempted to hum or pat out beats. During the readings, if they didn’t remember any words, they just sat quietly and listened.

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

Arnst, Catherine. "Songs that lead down memory lane." Business Week, October 6, issue 3547, (1997): 75. Location-journals microfilm.

This article discussed Alzheimer’s disease in elderly patients. It also described the effect of this disease on memories. However, in many Alzheimer’s patients it is not the memories that are gone, but rather the ability to retrieve them. The study described the effectiveness of music for retrieval. It found that dementia patients could recall long-term memories after hearing familiar tunes. The study compared the outcome of memory retrieval in two groups, one that was oriented with music and the other with verbalization. Results concluded that music therapy is a valuable tool to enhance the quality of life for patients with dementia.

Casy, J., and Holm, M. "The effects of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia." American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48 No. 10 (1994): 883-889. Location- journals microfilm.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term facility residents with Alzheimer’s disease. The study included three subjects. Results showed classical music and favorite music decreased the number of vocalizations in 2/3 of the subjects. The findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in people with this disease, in the least restrictive manor. In particular, both classical and favorite music decreased frequency of RDV. The article also concluded that the decrease in frequency was due to the subjects’ appreciation and enjoyment of the music.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Ansdell, Gary. Music for Life. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1995. Location – Main Stacks.

The author of this book discusses how music establishes an associative connection within the long-term memory. The author stresses the importance of ensuring that this musical memory be used in the present and not trap the patient in the past. The author suggests beginning with improvisation before working with familiar melodies.

Mace, Nancy L. & Peter V. Rabins, MD. The 36-Hour Day. Baltimore. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996. Location – Main Stacks.

The author states that those with severe memory loss seem to retain a capacity to enjoy familiar tunes. The author suggests playing soft music to help one with Alzheimer’s disease fall asleep and avoid night wandering.

Markin, RE The Alzheimer’s Cope Book. New York. Carol Publishing Group, 1992. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses how music therapy is useful with the Alzheimer’s patient. Music must be chosen carefully. Markin warns that patients may be frustrated when not able to remember the words to familiar songs. The author suggests using new age music because of its calming affect. New age music can help the patients sleep and discourage wandering.

Ostuni, Elizabeth. Getting Through: Communicating When Someone You Care For Has Alzheimer’s Disease. New Jersey. The Speech Bin, 1986. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses the use of music activities as a resource for communication. The author states that music can be used to relieve anxiety or increase blood and oxygen flow to provide a stimulus. Familiar tunes or records can be used for reminiscence.


Patriotic songs

Top

Moore, Randal S., and Staum, Myra J., and Broutons, Melissa. Journal of Music Therapy . Vol. 29-30. 1992-93. " Music Preferences for the Elderly". Location-Main Stacks.

Data was collected from 514 persons over 65 years of age. These subjects had physical, emotional, and cognitive disabilities. Results:

Patriotic and popular songs are preferred

Vocal ranges from F3 to C5 for women and an octave lower for men represent the best pitch range to use.

Slower and moderate tempos are preferable.

Live and recorded accompaniments are preferred over synthesized music.




Nursing Homes and Care Facilities

Top

Karras, Beckie. You Bring Out the Music in Me. The Haworth Press, 1987. Location-Main Stacks.

Music in nursing homes is very important. Music can help an elderly individual grow with greater self-esteem and less loneliness. The author described different studies and articles which demonstrated how music was beneficial with elderly patients. The studies included using music combined with dance, exercise, relaxation, etc. One elderly woman with Alzheimer's Disease mumbled "mamamamama" all day long. When headphones were placed on her, she smiled, swayed to the music, and her mumbling stopped. Music can be helpful in working with elderly people with Alzheimer's Disease.

Sambandham, M., and Schirm, V. "Music as a nursing intervention for residents with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care." Geriatric Nursing: American Journal of Care for the Aging, 16 No. 2 (1995): 79. Location- journals microfilm.

Music therapy resulted in increased social interaction of residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects continued to respond to music therapy even as the disease progressed. In one group, singing promoted more functional social and physical behaviors than previously noted. The article noted that agitated behaviors decreased during music sessions. For many Alzheimer’s patients the use of music enables communication. The study was designed to examine effects of music sessions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care as implemented by a nurse with no formal training in music therapy. Results showed a high degree of variability in subjects’ responses to music sessions. Also shown was improvement in memory and reminiscing abilities of the residents.

Casy, J., and Holm, M. "The effects of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia." American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48 No. 10 (1994): 883-889. Location- journals microfilm.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term facility residents with Alzheimer’s disease. The study included three subjects. Results showed classical music and favorite music decreased the number of vocalizations in 2/3 of the subjects. The findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in people with this disease, in the least restrictive manor. In particular, both classical and favorite music decreased frequency of RDV. The article also concluded that the decrease in frequency was due to the subjects’ appreciation and enjoyment of the music.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:

  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. Environmental cues to support independence.

Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.




Alzheimer’s Disease

Top

Smith, Georgia H. "A Comparison of the Effect of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." Music Therapy – The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy. Vol. 6A, No. 1. (1986). Pg. 41-56.

For this study, 12 women aged 71-92 were placed into groups of three. Each group received sessions of musically cued reminiscence (using familiar songs and questions to encourage discussion), verbally cued reminiscence (using questions to encourage discussion), and musical activity (using familiar songs without encouraging discussion). It was found that musically cued reminiscence and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores, but only musical activities increased total cognition scores.

Lipe, Anne W. "Using Music Therapy to Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 9. (1991). Pg. 102-105.

This case study examined a 69-year-old white woman who had played the piano when she was younger. Through the music therapy sessions, she was able to hum melodies after given the name of a song. Her general attitude was "brightened" and she was able to better express herself through music after the sessions.

Clair, Alicia A. and Bernstein, Barry. "A Comparison of Singing, Vibrotactile and Nonvibrotactile Instrumental Playing Responses in Severely Regressed Persons with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 27, No. 3. (Fall 1990). Pg. 119-125.

Six men aged 62-73 were chosen for this study. Vibrotactile portions of the sessions involved placing a hand drum in the lap of the patient. Nonvibrotactile portions involved the music therapist holding the drum in front of the patient. Singing was led by the music therapist, and the patients were encouraged to join in singing. Participation was highest when the drum was placed in patient laps, whereas there was little to no participation in singing exercises. Only one patient sang, and he had sung with a band as an adult. His participation decreased as his dementia progressed.

Prickett, Carol A. and Moore, Randall S. "The Use of Music to Aid Memory of Alzheimer’s Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association of Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 2. (Summer 1991). Pg. 101-110.

Individual assessments were given to six women and four men aged 69-87. The therapist sang familiar and unfamiliar songs and rhythmically recited with familiar and unfamiliar short poems. Songs were sung twice each session. During the second time, the patient was asked to join in on any words remembered. During the singing, even when patients couldn’t remember any words, they often attempted to hum or pat out beats. During the readings, if they didn’t remember any words, they just sat quietly and listened.

Pollack, Nancy J. and Namazi, Kevan H. "The Effect of Music Participation on the Social Behavior of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 1. (Spring 1992). Pg. 54-67.

Three men and five women aged 67-85 with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s were chosen for this study. All but one patient had participated in music therapy sessions prior to the study. The patients were observed in activities before and after therapy sessions in order to determine if there was an increase in socialization after a music therapy session. All patients increased social interaction and decreased in non-social interaction. After a few sessions, all patients participated enthusiastically in sessions.

Groene, Robert W. II. "The Effectiveness of Music Therapy 1:1 Intervention with Individuals Having Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 30, No. 3. (Fall 1993). Pg. 138-157.

Sessions were conducted to measure wandering during reading sessions for 16 women and 14 men aged 60-91. The presence of music during the reading sessions increased seating/proximity and decreased wandering in the patients.

Brotons, Melissa and Pickett-Cooper, Patty. "Preferences of Alzheimer’s Patients for Music Activities: Singing, Instruments, Dance and Movement, Games, and Composition and Improvisation." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 3. (Fall 1994). Pg. 220-233.

Twenty women aged 49-98 participated in this study. There were different portions of the sessions devoted to each music activity and participation was used to judge which activity was preferred. Activities included: 1) singing – 10 familiar songs were sung twice; 2) instrument playing – 10 familiar songs were used; 3) dance and movement – 4 songs with no words were used; 4) composition and improvisation – playing names musically, making melodies using tone bars, playing musical representations of feelings noted on different faces were used; 5) games – five games – 3 visually orientated and 2 auditorily orientated were used. Patients listed these activities, in order of preference: playing instruments, dancing, participating in games, singing, and composition/improvisation.

York, Elizabeth. "The Development of a Quantitative Music Skills Test for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 31, No. 4. (Winter 1994). Pg. 280-296.

Forty patients aged 58-98 participated in activities such as singing songs and adding rhythmic accompaniments, identification of instrument sounds, repetition of melodies, and association of rhythm and movement. Singing proved to be the most effective for a majority of the patients.

Olderog-Millard, Kristine A. and Smith, Jeffrey M. "The Influence of Group Singing Therapy on the Behavior of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 5, No. 2. (Summer 1989). Pg. 58-70.

The patients, seven women and three men aged 71-98 years, were observed after each session in which singing and discussion was encouraged. Most of the patients participated in the singing, and there was a significant increase in the amount of social activities in all patients.


Cordrey, Cindy, CMT-BC. Hidden Treasures; Music and Memory Activities for People with Alzheimer's. G and H Printing, Mt. Airy, Maryland, 1994. Location- Main Stacks.

Goals in working with people with Alzheimer’s Disease include creating a stimulating and caring environment that encourages participation and socialization, as well as developing maximum levels of functioning. Patients need to experience laughter, fun, and recover treasured lost memories. This book contains music activities that will help stimulate memories and provide pleasant experiences for Alzheimer's patients.

Karras, Beckie. You Bring Out the Music in Me. The Haworth Press, 1987. Location-Main Stacks.

Music in nursing homes is very important. Music can help an elderly individual grow with greater self-esteem and less loneliness. The author described different studies and articles which demonstrated how music was beneficial with elderly patients. The studies included using music combined with dance, exercise, relaxation, etc. One elderly woman with Alzheimer's Disease mumbled "mamamamama" all day long. When headphones were placed on her, she smiled, swayed to the music, and her mumbling stopped. Music can be helpful in working with elderly people with Alzheimer's Disease.

Douglas, Donna, RMT-BC. Accent on Rhythm; Music Activities for the Aged. MMB Music, Inc., 1981. Location-Main Stacks.

Most patients with Alzheimer's Disease are elderly. It is important to use age appropriate activities when working with them. This book provides good examples of different activities that work well with elderly patients. Music is suggested to accompany many of the activities. The music makes the activities more enjoyable, works as a motivator, helps patients work together, and helps them express their emotions. The author found that the most popular activity was the production of a variety show. This book includes suggestions for a production, as well as many other useful activities.

Dawson, Pam, and Kline, Karen, and Wells, Donna L. Enhancing the Abilities of Persons with Alzheimer's. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1993. Location-Main Stacks.

This book provides a small background about Alzheimer's Disease. It describes how to relate to people with Alzheimer's, give them care, and try to understand what they are feeling. Language and verbal expression of ideas are affected by the disease. Methods of determining an individuals social, language, and expressive abilities are illustrated. This resource is a useful tool for music therapists to use for assessment as well as treatment planning.

Gruetzner, Howard. Alzheimer's: A Caregiver's Source Guide and Source Book. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological condition that impairs the brain's functioning. This impairment results in deficient thinking and remembering. Patients may become irritated, agitated and depressed. Understanding Alzheimer's and knowing how to respond to it can be difficult. Many times people respond with annoyance, frustration, and anger. These responses are not good for the Alzheimer's patient. This book describes different approaches to use when dealing with different situations.


Bergener, Manfred, MD, and Finkel, Sanford I., MD. Treating Alzheimer's and Other Dementia's. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1995. Location-Main Stacks.

Understanding exactly what you are treating is important. This book contains an excellent overview of Alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia of Alzheimer's, the most common form type (DAT) is the most common disturbance of mental functioning in the later years of life. This is an excellent resource for music therapists.

Clair, Alicia Ann, PHD, MT-BC. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Health Professions Press, Inc., 1996. Location-Main Stacks.

In the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease, music may relieve fear and some symptoms of depression. It is most effective when the activities use skills that have been practiced over many years and have personal significance. People with Alzheimer's mat respond to music by tapping their feet, clapping, or dancing. Through music, Alzheimer's patients can continue to interact with others.

Smith, Bonnie Baird, and Bennett, Mary Babcock, and Knudson, Lisa, RMT-BC. A Son to Set Me Free. Allied Health and Human Services, 1995. Location- GOV PUB.

Interaction with others is important for people with Alzheimer's. Playing musical instruments in a large group setting works well for this. Patients with memory loss may need to see the instrument demonstrated first. Music can help patients express emotions and share significant past memories.

Gidley, Isobelle, and Shears Richard. We Never Say Goodbye; the Tragedy of Alzheimer's Disease. George Allan and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

In the first stages of Alzheimer's disease memory goes, and the patient may notice before anyone else. There is no specific pattern that the disease follows. Problems with language and organization of body movements may follow. Family members may be confused that a pattern is not being followed. Many patients go into denial when they realize what is happening. They may worry about becoming a burden to their family. Some die within four to five years and others will die very slowly. This experience can be very painful for family members. Music may be helpful in preserving language and motor skills. It is supportive for both patients and families.

Aldridge, D. "Music therapy and the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease." Clinical Gerontologist, 16 No. 1 (1995): 41-57. Location- journals microfilm.

This article refers to a study of a 55-year old woman with Alzheimer’s disease. The study examined the usefulness of music therapy in treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease. It involved using both passive and active music therapies. Results concluded that music therapy improves the quality of life of Alzheimer patients. It gives them a sense of social acceptance and belonging. The music used in this study was improvised.

Brotons, M., and Pickett-Cooper, P. "The effects of music therapy intervention on agitation behaviors of Alzheimer’s disease patients." Journal of Music therapy, 33 No. 1 (1996): 2-18. Location- journals bound.

This study examined the effects of live music therapy on agitation behavior of Alzheimer’s disease patients during and after music therapy intervention. The study explored the effect of music therapy in patients who had musical backgrounds compared with those who did not. The results revealed that the subjects were less agitated during and after music therapy than before. Results were consistent for patients who had or did not have a musical background.

Silber, F., and Hes, J. "The use of songwriting with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No. 1 (1995): 31-34. Location-journals bound.

This study examined the value of song writing with patients, who ranged from 62 to 84 years and were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The men and women participated in song writing exercises led by a music therapist. Exercises included writing songs based on images and descriptions of seasons and themes of love and stages of life. Results concluded that, based on the preservation of memory for tunes and melodies, patients were able to write songs when assisted by stimuli and provided with encouragement. This activity provided pleasure and social interaction.


Arnst, Catherine. "Songs that lead down memory lane." Business Week, October 6, issue 3547, (1997): 75. Location-journals microfilm.

This article discussed Alzheimer’s disease in elderly patients. It also described the effect of this disease on memories. However, in many Alzheimer’s patients it is not the memories that are gone, but rather the ability to retrieve them. The study described the effectiveness of music for retrieval. It found that dementia patients could recall long-term memories after hearing familiar tunes. The study compared the outcome of memory retrieval in two groups, one that was oriented with music and the other with verbalization. Results concluded that music therapy is a valuable tool to enhance the quality of life for patients with dementia.

Sambandham, M., and Schirm, V. "Music as a nursing intervention for residents with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care." Geriatric Nursing: American Journal of Care for the Aging, 16 No. 2 (1995): 79. Location- journals microfilm.

Music therapy resulted in increased social interaction of residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects continued to respond to music therapy even as the disease progressed. In one group, singing promoted more functional social and physical behaviors than previously noted. The article noted that agitated behaviors decreased during music sessions. For many Alzheimer’s patients the use of music enables communication. The study was designed to examine effects of music sessions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care as implemented by a nurse with no formal training in music therapy. Results showed a high degree of variability in subjects’ responses to music sessions. Also shown was improvement in memory and reminiscing abilities of the residents.

Rabins, P.V. "Developing treatment guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57 Suppl. 14 (1996): 37-38. Location- journals microfilm.

This article contains a review of literature that revealed a variety of treatments are effective in reducing symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental and behavioral therapies aimed at reducing cognitive or behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease were noted. Music therapy was included in this discussion of therapies.

Casy, J., and Holm, M. "The effects of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia." American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48 No. 10 (1994): 883-889. Location- journals microfilm.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term facility residents with Alzheimer’s disease. The study included three subjects. Results showed classical music and favorite music decreased the number of vocalizations in 2/3 of the subjects. The findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in people with this disease, in the least restrictive manor. In particular, both classical and favorite music decreased frequency of RDV. The article also concluded that the decrease in frequency was due to the subjects’ appreciation and enjoyment of the music.

Lipe, Anne and Nahama, Glynn. "Musical debate…the music therapy assessment tool." Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 18 No. 7 (1992): 3-4. Location- journals microfilm.

This editorial reviewed research in the use of music therapy with Alzheimer’s patients and explained how it is beginning to develop more. It reviews research studies and results of two previous investigations. It was found that Alzheimer dementia patients could continue to function successfully in structured music group experiences. The article also reviewed the use of the music therapy assessment tool and explains how it was designed to facilitate research aimed at defining particular nursing interventions. This networking would then maximize the Alzheimer’s disease patient’s quality of life.

Thomas, D., Heitman, R., and Alexander, T. "The effects of music on bathing cooperation for residents with dementia." Journal of Music Therapy, 34 No. 7 (1997): 247-253. Location- journals microfilm.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate music’s effect on bathing cooperation among a group of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Music was used to reduce anxiety by creating an atmosphere that was interpreted as safe and non-threatening. The type of music used in this study was individualized for each subject. A tape of music to be played during the study was developed by the help of family members with the information they provided. Results suggested that the discretionary use of music while bathing might have some effect on delaying the onset of the more severe forms of agitation. This source also gives guidance for caregivers to implement while bathing a client.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:
  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. Environmental cues to support independence.
Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.

Christie, Mary Ella. "The Influence of a Highly Participatory Peer Motivating Group Behaviors of Lower Functioning Persons Who Have Probable Alzheimer’s Type Dementia: A Feasible Study." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No.2 (1997): 87. Location – Current.

This clinical study shows that strong participators in a group music program can highly increase the behaviors of lower functioning members of the group.

Feil, Neil. The Validation Breakthrough. Baltimore. Health Professions Press Inc., 1993. Location – Main Stacks.

Validation is a therapy for communicating with those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. This therapy is based on an attitude of respect and empathy for the patient. Music is one component of validation therapy. The author writes that early, learned melodies return when words have gone. Music can be used to enforce communication.

Lipe, Anne W., MM, RMT-BC. "Using Music Therapy To Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No. 9 (1991): 102. Location – Journals Bound.

The article describes how music therapy can provide psychological comfort in the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Lipe discusses the importance of evaluation of strengths of patients. The article includes a case study which examines the effects of music therapy intervention and states how goals, objectives, and strategies are developed.

Mace, Nancy L. & Peter V. Rabins, MD. The 36-Hour Day. Baltimore. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996. Location – Main Stacks.

The author states that those with severe memory loss seem to retain a capacity to enjoy familiar tunes. The author suggests playing soft music to help one with Alzheimer’s disease fall asleep and avoid night wandering.

Maletta, Gabe J, Ph.D., MD. "Management of Behavior Problems in Elderly Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias." Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 4 No. 4 (1988): 723-729. Location – Journals Bound

Maletta emphasizes the importance of planning and implementing a comprehensive approach to caring for elderly patients with dementia. This plan should include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and nonpharmacological treatments. The latter consists of nutrition, exercise, and sensory stimulation. Music provides one example of sensory stimulation by helping the patient maintain positive self-image, physical closeness, and healthy interrelationships.

Markin, RE The Alzheimer’s Cope Book. New York. Carol Publishing Group, 1992. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses how music therapy is useful with the Alzheimer’s patient. Music must be chosen carefully. Markin warns that patients may be frustrated when not able to remember the words to familiar songs. The author suggests using new age music because of its calming affect. New age music can help the patients sleep and discourage wandering.

Ostuni, Elizabeth. Getting Through: Communicating When Someone You Care For Has Alzheimer’s Disease. New Jersey. The Speech Bin, 1986. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses the use of music activities as a resource for communication. The author states that music can be used to relieve anxiety or increase blood and oxygen flow to provide a stimulus. Familiar tunes or records can be used for reminiscence.

Smith, Georgia. "A Comparison of the Effects of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy, 6A No.1 (1986): 30. Location – Journals Bound.

The article reports on a study that shows the effects of three approaches on Alzheimer’s subjects. The approaches include musically cued reminiscence, verbally cued reminiscence, and music alone. The results showed that musically cued and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores but not orientation, attention, or total scores. Music activity increased total scores. The results suggest that music may be useful in treatment for the Alzheimer’s disease patient.

Zgola, Jitka. Doing Things. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses activities to use to stimulate the sensory component and the socialization in the Alzheimer’s patient. Dancing to music can be used as a gross motor skills activity, sing-alongs as a social activity, and listening to music as a sensory activity. Music with Alzheimer’s patients gives the client the opportunity to practice well-maintained social skills and participate in social interchange.

U.S. Department of Related Dementia. "Alzheimer’s and Related Dementia’s". Location-Microfilm Journal.

The causes of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease are discussed. The diagnosis and stages of the disease are explored on the film. The progressions of emotional, cognitive, and, behavioral changes are cited and explained. This is a helpful resource for music therapists who are working with clients with dementia.

Department of Health and Human Services. " Music Therapy for Alzheimer’s and Dementia". Microfilm Journal.

Dr. Alicia Claire describes a comprehensive music therapy program. Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia are examined in particular. Findings, implications, and outcomes are presented. This resource, which provides a thorough review of goals and methods of working with the elderly, was compiled by Claire and other Music Therapy colleagues. Goals and methods of working with elderly clients are examined.

Butler, Robert N. Alzheimer’s Dementia, Dilemmas in Clinical Research. Humana Press, Clint, NJ, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

An important part of understanding Alzheimer’s Disease involves awareness of the struggles of the family of the patient. Stages of disbelief, non-acceptance, and often even questioning of one’s sanity are discussed. The second stage involves seeking out others who may be going through the same ordeal, sharing and asking questions and discussing with these peers. The third stage involves family acceptance and dealing with the facts. It is just as important to help family during the music therapy sessions as to help the clients with dementia. It is essential for the therapist to know what to expect from the client's significant others.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status. Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:
  • The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  • Memory impairment
  • Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  • The state of consciousness


Cohen, Gene D. M. D. , Ph.D. The Brain in Human Aging. Vol. 23. Springer Publishing Company 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer’s Disease is a degenerative brain disorder caused by impairment of memory and other intellectual functions, along with behavior deficits. The disorder is gradual and progressive, affecting some slowly over time and some others in only a short while. The book will help a music therapist understand the process of dementia.

Minor-Winters, and Minor-Blass, and Richter-Valentine. Caring for Alzheimer’s Patients. (Insight Books) New York and London 1989. Location-Main Stacks.

This resource provides an overview of Alzheimer’s Disease. The three stages are discussed. Patterns, diagnosis and problems are outlined and described.

HEARING before the Special Committee on Aging- United States Senate; One Hundred Second Congress- First Session. Washington DC, August 1, 1991. Serial No.102-9 Printed for the use of the Special Committee of Aging. Location-Government Publications.

This reserve includes a woman whose husband had Alzheimer’s Disease. She talks from the standpoint of a wife about the stages and describes how the disease slowly took control of her husband. She explains how music seemed to bring her husband alive. Activities use by the music therapist are presented. Music helps create a wide range of responses with elderly. It maybe simulative or sedative, may improve memory, can help with associations, and is a stimulus for reminiscence.

Aronson, Miriam K. Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease. 1988. Location-MainStacks.

The Alzheimer’s process affects specific nerve cells, the basal cholinergic projection system. This system holds an enzyme which enables cells to form acetycholine, a chemical that is used to transmit signals to other cells. Evidence also shows that AD is linked with destruction of the neural system. Serotonin also plays an important part in the emotional stages of AD. More than 15- 20 percent of brain cells in the cerebral cortex degenerates- - - these cells affect the cognition of a person. Refer to Dr. Dale Taylor’s book, Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy, for an explanation of the connection between music and physiological changes.


Dementia

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Lipe, Anne W. "Using Music Therapy to Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 9. (1991). Pg. 102-105.

This case study examined a 69-year-old white woman who had played the piano when she was younger. Through the music therapy sessions, she was able to hum melodies after given the name of a song. Her general attitude was "brightened" and she was able to better express herself through music after the sessions.

Clair, Alicia A. and Bernstein, Barry. "A Comparison of Singing, Vibrotactile and Nonvibrotactile Instrumental Playing Responses in Severely Regressed Persons with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 27, No. 3. (Fall 1990). Pg. 119-125.

Six men aged 62-73 were chosen for this study. Vibrotactile portions of the sessions involved placing a hand drum in the lap of the patient. Nonvibrotactile portions involved the music therapist holding the drum in front of the patient. Singing was led by the music therapist, and the patients were encouraged to join in singing. Participation was highest when the drum was placed in patient laps, whereas there was little to no participation in singing exercises. Only one patient sang, and he had sung with a band as an adult. His participation decreased as his dementia progressed.

Groene, Robert W. II. "The Effectiveness of Music Therapy 1:1 Intervention with Individuals Having Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 30, No. 3. (Fall 1993). Pg. 138-157.

Sessions were conducted to measure wandering during reading sessions for 16 women and 14 men aged 60-91. The presence of music during the reading sessions increased seating/proximity and decreased wandering in the patients.

Bergener, Manfred, MD, and Finkel, Sanford I., MD. Treating Alzheimer's and Other Dementia's. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1995. Location-Main Stacks.

Understanding exactly what you are treating is important. This book contains an excellent overview of Alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia of Alzheimer's, the most common form type (DAT) is the most common disturbance of mental functioning in the later years of life. This is an excellent resource for music therapists.

Arnst, Catherine. "Songs that lead down memory lane." Business Week, October 6, issue 3547, (1997): 75. Location-journals microfilm.

This article discussed Alzheimer’s disease in elderly patients. It also described the effect of this disease on memories. However, in many Alzheimer’s patients it is not the memories that are gone, but rather the ability to retrieve them. The study described the effectiveness of music for retrieval. It found that dementia patients could recall long-term memories after hearing familiar tunes. The study compared the outcome of memory retrieval in two groups, one that was oriented with music and the other with verbalization. Results concluded that music therapy is a valuable tool to enhance the quality of life for patients with dementia.

Rabins, P.V. "Developing treatment guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57 Suppl. 14 (1996): 37-38. Location- journals microfilm.

This article contains a review of literature that revealed a variety of treatments are effective in reducing symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental and behavioral therapies aimed at reducing cognitive or behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease were noted. Music therapy was included in this discussion of therapies.

Casy, J., and Holm, M. "The effects of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia." American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48 No. 10 (1994): 883-889. Location- journals microfilm.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term facility residents with Alzheimer’s disease. The study included three subjects. Results showed classical music and favorite music decreased the number of vocalizations in 2/3 of the subjects. The findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in people with this disease, in the least restrictive manor. In particular, both classical and favorite music decreased frequency of RDV. The article also concluded that the decrease in frequency was due to the subjects’ appreciation and enjoyment of the music.

Lipe, Anne and Nahama, Glynn. "Musical debate…the music therapy assessment tool." Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 18 No. 7 (1992): 3-4. Location- journals microfilm.

This editorial reviewed research in the use of music therapy with Alzheimer’s patients and explained how it is beginning to develop more. It reviews research studies and results of two previous investigations. It was found that Alzheimer dementia patients could continue to function successfully in structured music group experiences. The article also reviewed the use of the music therapy assessment tool and explains how it was designed to facilitate research aimed at defining particular nursing interventions. This networking would then maximize the Alzheimer’s disease patient’s quality of life.

Thomas, D., Heitman, R., and Alexander, T. "The effects of music on bathing cooperation for residents with dementia." Journal of Music Therapy, 34 No. 7 (1997): 247-253. Location- journals microfilm.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate music’s effect on bathing cooperation among a group of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Music was used to reduce anxiety by creating an atmosphere that was interpreted as safe and non-threatening. The type of music used in this study was individualized for each subject. A tape of music to be played during the study was developed by the help of family members with the information they provided. Results suggested that the discretionary use of music while bathing might have some effect on delaying the onset of the more severe forms of agitation. This source also gives guidance for caregivers to implement while bathing a client.

Christie, Mary Ella. "The Influence of a Highly Participatory Peer Motivating Group Behaviors of Lower Functioning Persons Who Have Probable Alzheimer’s Type Dementia: A Feasible Study." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No.2 (1997): 87. Location – Current.

This clinical study shows that strong participators in a group music program can highly increase the behaviors of lower functioning members of the group.

Goldsmith, Malcolm. Hearing the Voice of People with Dementia. Pennsylvania. Jessica Kingsley Publishing, 1993. Location – Main Stacks.

The author tells of how a music therapist enabled people with dementia to express emotions by playing various percussion instruments. A careful selection of music was used to mirror moods and express repressed feelings. Music therapy is effective in stimulating interest and communication.

Lipe, Anne W., MM, RMT-BC. "Using Music Therapy To Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No. 9 (1991): 102. Location – Journals Bound.

The article describes how music therapy can provide psychological comfort in the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Lipe discusses the importance of evaluation of strengths of patients. The article includes a case study which examines the effects of music therapy intervention and states how goals, objectives, and strategies are developed.

Maletta, Gabe J, Ph.D., MD. "Management of Behavior Problems in Elderly Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias." Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 4 No. 4 (1988): 723-729. Location – Journals Bound

Maletta emphasizes the importance of planning and implementing a comprehensive approach to caring for elderly patients with dementia. This plan should include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and nonpharmacological treatments. The latter consists of nutrition, exercise, and sensory stimulation. Music provides one example of sensory stimulation by helping the patient maintain positive self-image, physical closeness, and healthy interrelationships.

U.S. Department of Related Dementia. "Alzheimer’s and Related Dementia’s". Location-Microfilm Journal

The causes of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease are discussed. The diagnosis and stages of the disease are explored on the film. The progressions of emotional, cognitive, and, behavioral changes are cited and explained. This is a helpful resource for music therapists who are working with clients with dementia.

Department of Health and Human Services. " Music Therapy for Alzheimer’s and Dementia". Microfilm Journal.

Dr. Alicia Claire describes a comprehensive music therapy program. Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia are examined in particular. Findings, implications, and outcomes are presented. This resource, which provides a thorough review of goals and methods of working with the elderly, was compiled by Claire and other Music Therapy colleagues. Goals and methods of working with elderly clients are examined.

Butler, Robert N. Alzheimer’s Dementia, Dilemmas in Clinical Research. Humana Press, Clint, NJ, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

An important part of understanding Alzheimer’s Disease involves awareness of the struggles of the family of the patient. Stages of disbelief, non-acceptance, and often even questioning of one’s sanity are discussed. The second stage involves seeking out others who may be going through the same ordeal, sharing and asking questions and discussing with these peers. The third stage involves family acceptance and dealing with the facts. It is just as important to help family during the music therapy sessions as to help the clients with dementia. It is essential for the therapist to know what to expect from the client's significant others.


Elderly

Top

Maletta, Gabe J, Ph.D., MD. "Management of Behavior Problems in Elderly Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias." Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 4 No. 4 (1988): 723-729. Location – Journals Bound

Maletta emphasizes the importance of planning and implementing a comprehensive approach to caring for elderly patients with dementia. This plan should include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and nonpharmacological treatments. The latter consists of nutrition, exercise, and sensory stimulation. Music provides one example of sensory stimulation by helping the patient maintain positive self-image, physical closeness, and healthy interrelationships.

Department of Health and Human Services. " Music Therapy for Alzheimer’s and Dementia". Microfilm Journal.

Dr. Alicia Claire describes a comprehensive music therapy program. Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia are examined in particular. Findings, implications, and outcomes are presented. This resource, which provides a thorough review of goals and methods of working with the elderly, was compiled by Claire and other Music Therapy colleagues. Goals and methods of working with elderly clients are examined.

Moore, Randal S., and Staum, Myra J., and Broutons, Melissa. Journal of Music Therapy . Vol. 29-30. 1992-93. " Music Preferences for the Elderly". Location-Main Stacks.

Data was collected from 514 persons over 65 years of age. These subjects had physical, emotional, and cognitive disabilities. Results:

Patriotic and popular songs are preferred

Vocal ranges from F3 to C5 for women and an octave lower for men represent the best pitch range to use.

Slower and moderate tempos are preferable.

Live and recorded accompaniments are preferred over synthesized music.


Douglas, Donna, RMT-BC. Accent on Rhythm; Music Activities for the Aged. MMB Music, Inc., 1981. Location-Main Stacks.

Most patients with Alzheimer's Disease are elderly. It is important to use age appropriate activities when working with them. This book provides good examples of different activities that work well with elderly patients. Music is suggested to accompany many of the activities. The music makes the activities more enjoyable, works as a motivator, helps patients work together, and helps them express their emotions. The author found that the most popular activity was the production of a variety show. This book includes suggestions for a production, as well as many other useful activities.


Family

Top

Gidley, Isobelle, and Shears Richard. We Never Say Goodbye; the Tragedy of Alzheimer's Disease. George Allan and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.Gidley, Isobelle, and Shears Richard. We Never Say Goodbye; the Tragedy of Alzheimer's Disease. George Allan and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

In the first stages of Alzheimer's disease memory goes, and the patient may notice before anyone else. There is no specific pattern that the disease follows. Problems with language and organization of body movements may follow. Family members may be confused that a pattern is not being followed. Many patients go into denial when they realize what is happening. They may worry about becoming a burden to their family. Some die within four to five years and others will die very slowly. This experience can be very painful for family members. Music may be helpful in preserving language and motor skills. It is supportive for both patients and families.

Friedman, D. "Drumming to the rhythms of life." US News and World Report, 122 No. 22 (1997): 17. Location- Journals microfilm.

Drumming is becoming an important therapeutic tool. In nursing, drumming and other forms of music therapy help Alzheimer patients focus. The article claimed that everything we do in life comes down to rhythm. It reviews research in music therapy that reports Alzheimer patients who have been unable to speak who sing childhood melodies. Those who can barely walk may be able to dance a waltz. The article concluded that drumming and other music therapy activities might not cure the disease; however, it may offer another way for family members to communicate with their loved one.

Butler, Robert N. Alzheimer’s Dementia, Dilemmas in Clinical Research. Humana Press, Clint, NJ, 1985. Location-Main Stacks.

An important part of understanding Alzheimer’s Disease involves awareness of the struggles of the family of the patient. Stages of disbelief, non-acceptance, and often even questioning of one’s sanity are discussed. The second stage involves seeking out others who may be going through the same ordeal, sharing and asking questions and discussing with these peers. The third stage involves family acceptance and dealing with the facts. It is just as important to help family during the music therapy sessions as to help the clients with dementia. It is essential for the therapist to know what to expect from the client's significant others.


Physiological and Cognitive Effects

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Smith, Georgia H. "A Comparison of the Effect of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." Music Therapy – The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy. Vol. 6A, No. 1. (1986). Pg. 41-56.

For this study, 12 women aged 71-92 were placed into groups of three. Each group received sessions of musically cued reminiscence (using familiar songs and questions to encourage discussion), verbally cued reminiscence (using questions to encourage discussion), and musical activity (using familiar songs without encouraging discussion). It was found that musically cued reminiscence and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores, but only musical activities increased total cognition scores.

Gruetzner, Howard. Alzheimer's: A Caregiver's Source Guide and Source Book. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological condition that impairs the brain's functioning. This impairment results in deficient thinking and remembering. Patients may become irritated, agitated and depressed. Understanding Alzheimer's and knowing how to respond to it can be difficult. Many times people respond with annoyance, frustration, and anger. These responses are not good for the Alzheimer's patient. This book describes different approaches to use when dealing with different situations.

Ostuni, Elizabeth. Getting Through: Communicating When Someone You Care For Has Alzheimer’s Disease. New Jersey. The Speech Bin, 1986. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses the use of music activities as a resource for communication. The author states that music can be used to relieve anxiety or increase blood and oxygen flow to provide a stimulus. Familiar tunes or records can be used for reminiscence.

Smith, Georgia. "A Comparison of the Effects of Three Treatment Interventions on Cognitive Functioning of Alzheimer’s Patients." The Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy, 6A No.1 (1986): 30. Location – Journals Bound.

The article reports on a study that shows the effects of three approaches on Alzheimer’s subjects. The approaches include musically cued reminiscence, verbally cued reminiscence, and music alone. The results showed that musically cued and verbally cued reminiscence increased language scores but not orientation, attention, or total scores. Music activity increased total scores. The results suggest that music may be useful in treatment for the Alzheimer’s disease patient.

U.S. Department of Related Dementia. "Alzheimer’s and Related Dementia’s". Location-Microfilm Journal.

The causes of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease are discussed. The diagnosis and stages of the disease are explored on the film. The progressions of emotional, cognitive, and, behavioral changes are cited and explained. This is a helpful resource for music therapists who are working with clients with dementia.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status.

Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:

  • The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  • Memory impairment
  • Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  • The state of consciousness


Cohen, Gene D. M. D. , Ph.D. The Brain in Human Aging. Vol. 23. Springer Publishing Company 1988. Location-Main Stacks.

Alzheimer’s Disease is a degenerative brain disorder caused by impairment of memory and other intellectual functions, along with behavior deficits. The disorder is gradual and progressive, affecting some slowly over time and some others in only a short while. The book will help a music therapist understand the process of dementia.

Moore, Randal S., and Staum, Myra J., and Broutons, Melissa. Journal of Music Therapy . Vol. 29-30. 1992-93. " Music Preferences for the Elderly". Location-Main Stacks.

Data was collected from 514 persons over 65 years of age. These subjects had physical, emotional, and cognitive disabilities. Results:

  • Patriotic and popular songs are preferred
  • Vocal ranges from F3 to C5 for women and an octave lower for men represent the best pitch range to use.
  • Slower and moderate tempos are preferable.
  • Live and recorded accompaniments are preferred over synthesized music.


Aronson, Miriam K. Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease. 1988. Location-MainStacks.

The Alzheimer’s process affects specific nerve cells, the basal cholinergic projection system. This system holds an enzyme that enables cells to form acetycholine, a chemical that is used to transmit signals to other cells. Evidence also shows that AD is linked with destruction of the neural system. Serotonin also plays an important part in the emotional stages of AD. More than 15- 20 percent of brain cells in the cerebral cortex degenerates- - - these cells affect the cognition of a person. Refer to Dr. Dale Taylor’s book, Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy, for an explanation of the connection between music and physiological changes.

Rabins, P.V. "Developing treatment guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57 Suppl. 14 (1996): 37-38. Location- journals microfilm.

This article contains a review of literature that revealed a variety of treatments are effective in reducing symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental and behavioral therapies aimed at reducing cognitive or behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease were noted. Music therapy was included in this discussion of therapies.


Recreation and Quality of Life

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Lipe, Anne W. "Using Music Therapy to Enhance the Quality of Life in a Client with Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Study." Music Therapy Perspectives. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 9. (1991). Pg. 102-105.

This case study examined a 69-year-old white woman who had played the piano when she was younger. Through the music therapy sessions, she was able to hum melodies after given the name of a song. Her general attitude was "brightened" and she was able to better express herself through music after the sessions.

Cordrey, Cindy, CMT-BC. Hidden Treasures; Music and Memory Activities for People with Alzheimer's. G and H Printing, Mt. Airy, Maryland, 1994. Location- Main Stacks.

Goals in working with people with Alzheimer’s Disease include creating a stimulating and caring environment that encourages participation and socialization, as well as developing maximum levels of functioning. Patients need to experience laughter, fun, and recover treasured lost memories. This book contains music activities that will help stimulate memories and provide pleasant experiences for Alzheimer's patients.

Douglas, Donna, RMT-BC. Accent on Rhythm; Music Activities for the Aged MMB Music, Inc., 1981. Location-Main Stacks.

Most patients with Alzheimer's Disease are elderly. It is important to use age appropriate activities when working with them. This book provides good examples of different activities that work well with elderly patients. Music is suggested to accompany many of the activities. The music makes the activities more enjoyable, works as a motivator, helps patients work together, and helps them express their emotions. The author found that the most popular activity was the production of a variety show. This book includes suggestions for a production, as well as many other useful activities.

Elliot, Jerold E., Re. D., and Sorg-Elliot, Judith A., MA. Recreation Programming and Activities. Venture Publishing, Inc., 1991. Location-Main Stacks.

This book was written to provide quality recreation programs for older adults. It covers everything from planning to staffing therapeutic events. One chapter includes different music activities for older adults. Different activities include story telling, rhythm bands, band concerts, name that tune, and musical charades. A high level of musical talent is not needed to lead these activities. These are activities which may benefit older adults and that they will enjoy.

Silber, F., and Hes, J. "The use of songwriting with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No. 1 (1995): 31-34. Location-journals bound.

This study examined the value of song writing with patients, who ranged from 62 to 84 years and were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The men and women participated in song writing exercises led by a music therapist. Exercises included writing songs based on images and descriptions of seasons and themes of love and stages of life. Results concluded that, based on the preservation of memory for tunes and melodies, patients were able to write songs when assisted by stimuli and provided with encouragement. This activity provided pleasure and social interaction.

Aldridge, D. "Music therapy and the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease." Clinical Gerontologist, 16 No. 1 (1995): 41-57. Location- journals microfilm.

This article refers to a study of a 55-year old woman with Alzheimer’s disease. The study examined the usefulness of music therapy in treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease. It involved using both passive and active music therapies. Results concluded that music therapy improves the quality of life of Alzheimer patients. It gives them a sense of social acceptance and belonging. The music used in this study was improvised.

Arnst, Catherine. "Songs that lead down memory lane." Business Week, October 6, issue 3547, (1997): 75. Location-journals microfilm.

This article discussed Alzheimer’s disease in elderly patients. It also described the effect of this disease on memories. However, in many Alzheimer’s patients it is not the memories that are gone, but rather the ability to retrieve them. The study described the effectiveness of music for retrieval. It found that dementia patients could recall long-term memories after hearing familiar tunes. The study compared the outcome of memory retrieval in two groups, one that was oriented with music and the other with verbalization. Results concluded that music therapy is a valuable tool to enhance the quality of life for patients with dementia.

Casy, J., and Holm, M. "The effects of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia." American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48 No. 10 (1994): 883-889. Location- journals microfilm.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term facility residents with Alzheimer’s disease. The study included three subjects. Results showed classical music and favorite music decreased the number of vocalizations in 2/3 of the subjects. The findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in people with this disease, in the least restrictive manor. In particular, both classical and favorite music decreased frequency of RDV. The article also concluded that the decrease in frequency was due to the subjects’ appreciation and enjoyment of the music.

Lipe, Anne and Nahama, Glynn. "Musical debate…the music therapy assessment tool." Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 18 No. 7 (1992): 3-4. Location- journals microfilm.

This editorial reviewed research in the use of music therapy with Alzheimer’s patients and explained how it is beginning to develop more. It reviews research studies and results of two previous investigations. It was found that Alzheimer dementia patients could continue to function successfully in structured music group experiences. The article also reviewed the use of the music therapy assessment tool and explains how it was designed to facilitate research aimed at defining particular nursing interventions. This networking would then maximize the Alzheimer’s disease patient’s quality of life.

Chavin, Melanie, MS, RMT-BC. The Lost Chord. Maryland. G and H Publishing, 1991. Location – Main Stacks.

The author describes the use of music for an Alzheimer’s Family Care Center. Considerations include the following needs:

  1. Activities to accommodate short attention spans.
  2. Distraction- free environment.
  3. New focus about every fifteen minutes.
  4. Emotional support.
  5. Environmental cues to support independence.

Music is used to provide the opportunity for decision making, voicing opinions, discussing feelings, and increasing self-esteem. Music is used to assess and maintain eye/hand coordination. The author also states that music provides a means of creative self-expression, nonverbal communication, memory, and most importantly, lets the group have fun.



Mace, Nancy L. & Peter V. Rabins, MD. The 36-Hour Day. Baltimore. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996. Location – Main Stacks.

The author states that those with severe memory loss seem to retain a capacity to enjoy familiar tunes. The author suggests playing soft music to help one with Alzheimer’s disease fall asleep and avoid night wandering.


Relaxation and Sleep

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Karras, Beckie. You Bring Out the Music in Me. The Haworth Press, 1987. Location-Main Stacks.

Music in nursing homes is very important. Music can help an elderly individual grow with greater self-esteem and less loneliness. The author described different studies and articles that demonstrated how music was beneficial with elderly patients. The studies included using music combined with dance, exercise, relaxation, etc. One elderly woman with Alzheimer's Disease mumbled "mamamamama" all day long. When headphones were placed on her, she smiled, swayed to the music, and her mumbling stopped. Music can be helpful in working with elderly people with Alzheimer's Disease.

Mace, Nancy L. & Peter V. Rabins, MD. The 36-Hour Day. Baltimore. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996. Location – Main Stacks

The author states that those with severe memory loss seem to retain a capacity to enjoy familiar tunes. The author suggests playing soft music to help one with Alzheimer’s disease fall asleep and avoid night wandering.

Markin, RE The Alzheimer’s Cope Book. New York. Carol Publishing Group, 1992. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses how music therapy is useful with the Alzheimer’s patient. Music must be chosen carefully. Markin warns that patients may be frustrated when not able to remember the words to familiar songs. The author suggests using new age music because of its calming affect. New age music can help the patients sleep and discourage wandering.


Socialization and Social Skills

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Pollack, Nancy J. and Namazi, Kevan H. "The Effect of Music Participation on the Social Behavior of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 29, No. 1. (Spring 1992). Pg. 54-67.

Three men and five women aged 67-85 with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s were chosen for this study. All but one patient had participated in music therapy sessions prior to the study. The patients were observed in activities before and after therapy sessions in order to determine if there was an increase in socialization after a music therapy session. All patients increased social interaction and decreased in non-social interaction. After a few sessions, all patients participated enthusiastically in sessions.

Cordrey, Cindy, CMT-BC. Hidden Treasures; Music and Memory Activities for People with Alzheimer's. G and H Printing, Mt. Airy, Maryland, 1994. Location- Main Stacks.

Goals in working with people with Alzheimer’s Disease include creating a stimulating and caring environment that encourages participation and socialization, as well as developing maximum levels of functioning. Patients need to experience laughter, fun, and recover treasured lost memories. This book contains music activities that will help stimulate memories and provide pleasant experiences for Alzheimer's patients.

Dawson, Pam, and Kline, Karen, and Wells, Donna L. Enhancing the Abilities of Persons with Alzheimer's. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1993. Location-Main Stacks.

This book provides a small background about Alzheimer's Disease. It describes how to relate to people with Alzheimer's, give them care, and try to understand what they are feeling. Language and verbal expression of ideas are affected by the disease. Methods of determining an individuals social, language, and expressive abilities are illustrated. This resource is a useful tool for music therapists to use for assessment as well as treatment planning.

Clair, Alicia Ann, PHD, MT-BC. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Health Professions Press, Inc., 1996. Location-Main Stacks.

In the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease, music may relieve fear and some symptoms of depression. It is most effective when the activities use skills that have been practiced over many years and have personal significance. People with Alzheimer's mat respond to music by tapping their feet, clapping, or dancing. Through music, Alzheimer's patients can continue to interact with others.

Smith, Bonnie Baird, and Bennett, Mary Babcock, and Knudson, Lisa, RMT-BC. A Son to Set Me Free. Allied Health and Human Services, 1995. Location- GOV PUB.

Interaction with others is important for people with Alzheimer's. Playing musical instruments in a large group setting works well for this. Patients with memory loss may need to see the instrument demonstrated first. Music can help patients express emotions and share significant past memories.

Smith, Bonnie Baird, and Bennett, Mary Babcock, and Knudson, Lisa, RMT-BC. A Son to Set Me Free. Allied Health and Human Services, 1995. Location- GOV PUB.

Interaction with others is important for people with Alzheimer's. Playing musical instruments in a large group setting works well for this. Patients with memory loss may need to see the instrument demonstrated first. Music can help patients express emotions and share significant past memories.

Silber, F., and Hes, J. "The use of songwriting with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease." Music Therapy Perspectives, 13 No. 1 (1995): 31-34. Location-journals bound.

This study examined the value of song writing with patients, who ranged from 62 to 84 years and were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The men and women participated in song writing exercises led by a music therapist. Exercises included writing songs based on images and descriptions of seasons and themes of love and stages of life. Results concluded that, based on the preservation of memory for tunes and melodies, patients were able to write songs when assisted by stimuli and provided with encouragement. This activity provided pleasure and social interaction.

Sambandham, M., and Schirm, V. "Music as a nursing intervention for residents with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care." Geriatric Nursing: American Journal of Care for the Aging, 16 No. 2 (1995): 79. Location- journals microfilm.

Music therapy resulted in increased social interaction of residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects continued to respond to music therapy even as the disease progressed. In one group, singing promoted more functional social and physical behaviors than previously noted. The article noted that agitated behaviors decreased during music sessions. For many Alzheimer’s patients the use of music enables communication. The study was designed to examine effects of music sessions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care as implemented by a nurse with no formal training in music therapy. Results showed a high degree of variability in subjects’ responses to music sessions. Also shown was improvement in memory and reminiscing abilities of the residents.

Zgola, Jitka. Doing Things. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses activities to use to stimulate the sensory component and the socialization in the Alzheimer’s patient. Dancing to music can be used as a gross motor skills activity, sing-alongs as a social activity, and listening to music as a sensory activity. Music with Alzheimer’s patients gives the client the opportunity to practice well-maintained social skills and participate in social interchange.

National Health and Publishing Coordination. Confronting Alzheimer’s Disease. Location-Main Stacks.

Knowing how to recognize and diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease is described in this book. Areas which should be addressed and assessed during a session include emotional, motor, language, social, spiritual, and cognitive status.

Four criteria are used to recognize Alzheimer’s Disease:

  • The loss of intellectual ability of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
  • Memory impairment
  • Impairment of abstract thinking, cortical dysfunction, and gradual personality changes
  • The state of consciousness



Wandering

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Groene, Robert W. II. "The Effectiveness of Music Therapy 1:1 Intervention with Individuals Having Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type." Journal of Music Therapy. National Association for Music Therapy, Inc. Vol. 30, No. 3. (Fall 1993). Pg. 138-157.

Sessions were conducted to measure wandering during reading sessions for 16 women and 14 men aged 60-91. The presence of music during the reading sessions increased seating/proximity and decreased wandering in the patients.

Mace, Nancy L. & Peter V. Rabins, MD. The 36-Hour Day. Baltimore. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996. Location – Main Stacks

The author states that those with severe memory loss seem to retain a capacity to enjoy familiar tunes. The author suggests playing soft music to help one with Alzheimer’s disease fall asleep and avoid night wandering.

Markin, RE The Alzheimer’s Cope Book. New York. Carol Publishing Group, 1992. Location – Main Stacks.

The author discusses how music therapy is useful with the Alzheimer’s patient. Music must be chosen carefully. Markin warns that patients may be frustrated when not able to remember the words to familiar songs. The author suggests using new age music because of its calming affect. New age music can help the patients sleep and discourage wandering.