Strategies For Studying The Lecture Notes

After examining your notes on the chapters you will begin to see that Christopherson has provided you with detailed outlines.  Information in the chapters is organized in a hierarchical arrangement of main heading and subheadings.  Lectures are similarly organized.  However, your notes are your outline.  Ask yourself, "how does the subject matter presented in lecture fit with that in the chapters?"  It will be:  the same as that in the text, more detailed or less detailed than the text, or completely different (but linked to some information in the text).  You must go through the intellectual exercise of fitting lecture material into the framework/outline that you identified from you analysis of the text.  Once so organized, you will note that lecture material is also organized in a hierarchical fashion with main heading, subheadings, and definitions.  Compare the two sources of information (lecture and readings).  Where information is presented twice you have found yourself a key issue.  These issues/ definitions/ topics are your highest priority (why else would I have repeated them?).  If you know how they relate to the whole and to each other you cannot lose!

Remember:  Follow the water!

What are the Earth systems (or spheres)?  They have three "parts"?

What are the three descriptive criteria we use to describe climate/ climate regions?  Which two does the Koeppen system use?  What do you need to know about those criteria besides "average" conditions?  What does the Koeppen system consider besides "average" conditions? 

Definition:  Natural regions are…?

Why does a Koeppen regional climate map look so much like a map of regional biomes?

Can you identify the locations of climate regions and biomes on a map of North America?  See the last page of the study guide for maps  (A, B, C, D, E, Figure 10-4, page 268), Biomes (using the terminology on Figure 20-3 page 596-597), and soils (Figure 18-9 pages 538-539).

Definition:  solar climate classification?  What did Alexander Von Humboldt invent that, along with instrumentation made the solar climate classification idea obsolete and ushered in modern climatology?

Water definitions:  latent heat, specific heat, adhesion, cohesion, capillary forces, universal solvent, geomorphic agent, infiltration, percolation, permeability, porosity, field capacity, permanent wilting point, saturation, hygroscopic water, gravitational water, baseflow.  Relate them to textures:  sand, silt (silt loam), clay.

How much fresh water is there (in terms of % of total water on Earth)?  How much of that water is "NOT frozen"?

What do we mean when we refer to water as the "universal solvent".  What does this unique property of water mean to the biosphere?  To the lithosphere?  To groundwater contamination?

The 4 "facilities" in the hydrologic cycle are…?  Which one stores the most fresh not frozen water?  The 3 main outputs back to the atmosphere are…?

Infiltration-runoff ratio:  list precipitation factors; list surface factors?  How do these factors influence rates of infiltration versus runoff?

The three lifting mechanisms that lift moist air so it cools adiabatically and precipitation can occur are?

Definitions:  respiration, transpiration, evaporation, evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, actual transpiration.   

What happens to Potential Evapotranspiration when atmospheric temperature? 

What are the two inputs in the soil-moisture balance equation that together make up actual evapotranspiration?