A-Z List


Surgery

Journal Articles


Anesthesia

Bruscia, K. (1989). Defining Music Therapy. Phoenixville, PA: Barcelona Publishers.
Call Number: ML 3920.B775.

This book defines music, therapy, music therapy, and levels of music therapy. It also provides examples from music therapy literature, one of which is “Music In Medicine.” This author has found that music reduces preoperative anxiety and decreases the amount of medication needed for anesthesia. Music helps awaken postoperative patients and reduces pain.

Campbell, D. (1997). The Mozart Effect. New York: Avon Books.
Call Number: ML 3920.C17.

This author explores the use of imagery and music with surgery, anxiolytic music, and music used during recovery from surgery. It was found that listening to music along with using imagery three days before surgery helps with postoperative recovery. Linda Rogers’ work reveals that patients do hear under anesthesia and that anxiolytic music does reduce anxiety. She recommends that audiotapes selected by each patient be played before, during, and after surgery on cassette players with earphones. Ralph Spintge studied the effects of music on 97, 000 patients, before, during, and after surgery, and 97% reported that music helped them relax during recovery. It was indicated that soft tonal music was most effective.

Long, C. (1996). Doctors find music works well with sedative and anesthetics. Insight on the News, 12, 41.

This author addresses music related to anesthesia and pain. He speaks of New Age musician Iasos’ music reducing the need for anesthetics and medicine required prior to surgery and aiding patients to awaken in a calm state. The results indicate that music has an ability to reduce the use of anesthesia, along with slowing down the patients’ breathing, producing a sedative response. Entraining is effective, and music reduced the amount of pain medication needed after surgery.


Anxiety Reduction

Top

Amodei, M., Kaempf, G. (1989). The effect of music on anxiety. AORN Journal, 50, 112-118.

This study evaluated the effects of sedative music on the anxiety of patients in the operating room holding area. The patients were divided into two groups: the control group and the experimental group. Results showed that the experimental group had a significant drop in respiration rates and anxiety test scores. Systolic blood pressure changed slightly. It was noted that policies should be developed to allow patients to use their own audiocassette players and that patients might like to choose their own music.

Augustin P. (1996). Effect of music on ambulatory surgery patients’ preoperative anxiety. AORN Journal, 63, 750-758.

This study examined the use of music to decrease preoperative patients’ anxiety. It suggests that familiar music can positively affect patients’ hospitalization experiences and surgery. The results indicate that music blocks out background noise of the operating room and can help a patient decrease negative surgical experiences.

Barnes, C., Kenny F., Call, T., & Reinhart, J. (1972). Measurement in management of anxiety in children for open-heart surgery. Pediatrics, 49, 250-259.

This reference describes a study of eleven children undergoing open-heart surgery with an emphasis on observing neuro-endocrine and behavior responses. A child psychiatrist and a pediatric nurse assessed the children before and after their surgeries. This article justifies the importance of using music as a way to relieve or lessen stress and anxiety.

Bruscia, K. (1989). Defining Music Therapy. Phoenixville, PA: Barcelona Publishers.
Call Number: ML 3920.B775.

This book defines music, therapy, music therapy, and levels of music therapy. It also provides examples from music therapy literature, one of which is “Music In Medicine.” This author has found that music reduces preoperative anxiety and decreases the amount of medication needed for anesthesia. Music helps awaken postoperative patients and reduces pain.

Chetta, H. (1981). The effect of music and desensitization on preoperative anxiety in children. Journal of Music Therapy, 18, 74-87.

A study was done to examine the use of music on children. Music was used to inform children about what was going to happen to them before surgery. This use of music reduced the preoperative anxiety in children.

Godbey, F., Wolfe, L. (1997). Sensory healing. Prevention, 4, 24-25.

This study involved colorectal surgery patients. It compared patients who listened to music tapes three days before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery, to those who did not listen to music. The results indicated that the listeners experienced half the postoperative anxiety and used half as much painkiller.

Hanser, S. (1985). Music Therapy and stress reduction research. Journal of Music Therapy, 22, 193-206.

This article defines anxiety and presents music as a way to reduce anxiety.

Thaut, M. (1993). The influence of subject-selected versus experimenter-chosen music on affect, anxiety, and relaxation. Journal of Music Therapy, 30, 210-223.

This study was done to determine the effect of subject-selected and experimenter-selected music on affect, anxiety, and relaxation. It was also shown that the type of music chosen had little effect on the relaxation or anxiety.

Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. (1975). The effect on children’s and parents’ stress responses and adjustment. Pediatrics, 56, 187-202.

This study involved the assessment of a variety of preoperative psychological supports aimed at reducing stress in pediatric patients and their parents. The conclusion was that preoperative discussion of the activities before and after surgery greatly lowered anxiety.


Children

Top

Barnes, C., Kenny F., Call, T., & Reinhart, J. (1972). Measurement in management of anxiety in children for open-heart surgery. Pediatrics, 49, 250-259.

This reference describes a study of eleven children undergoing open-heart surgery with an emphasis on observing neuro-endocrine and behavior responses. A child psychiatrist and a pediatric nurse assessed the children before and after their surgeries. This article justifies the importance of using music as a way to relieve or lessen stress and anxiety.

Chetta, H. (1981). The effect of music and desensitization on preoperative anxiety in children. Journal of Music Therapy, 18, 74-87.

A study was done to examine the use of music on children. Music was used to inform children about what was going to happen to them before surgery. This use of music reduced the preoperative anxiety in children.

Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. (1975). The effect on children’s and parents’ stress responses and adjustment. Pediatrics, 56, 187-202.

This study involved the assessment of a variety of preoperative psychological supports aimed at reducing stress in pediatric patients and their parents. The conclusion was that preoperative discussion of the activities before and after surgery greatly lowered anxiety.


Effects on the Brain

Top

Barnes, C., Kenny F., Call, T., & Reinhart, J. (1972). Measurement in management of anxiety in children for open-heart surgery. Pediatrics, 49, 250-259.

This reference describes a study of eleven children undergoing open-heart surgery with an emphasis on observing neuro-endocrine and behavior responses. A child psychiatrist and a pediatric nurse assessed the children before and after their surgeries. This article justifies the importance of using music as a way to relieve or lessen stress and anxiety.

Frandsen, J. (1990). Music is a valuable anxiolytic during local and regional anesthesia. Nurse Anesthesia, 1,181-182.

The author of this article explores the use of music as an alternative to pharmacological sedation. It reveals that music can reduce preoperative disease and anxiety. The selection of music is based on the patients’ preference, guided by the anesthetist’s knowledge of the physiological and emotional effects of the music. It was found that music affects the higher cerebral centers, along with the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and metabolic systems.


Expression of Emotions

Top

Augustin P. (1996). Effect of music on ambulatory surgery patients’ preoperative anxiety. AORN Journal, 63, 750-758.

This study examined the use of music to decrease preoperative patients’ anxiety. It suggests that familiar music can positively affect patients’ hospitalization experiences and surgery. The results indicate that music blocks out background noise of the operating room and can help a patient decrease negative surgical experiences.

Barnes, C., Kenny F., Call, T., & Reinhart, J. (1972). Measurement in management of anxiety in children for open-heart surgery. Pediatrics, 49, 250-259.

This reference describes a study of eleven children undergoing open-heart surgery with an emphasis on observing neuro-endocrine and behavior responses. A child psychiatrist and a pediatric nurse assessed the children before and after their surgeries. This article justifies the importance of using music as a way to relieve or lessen stress and anxiety.

Campbell, D. (1997). The Mozart Effect. New York: Avon Books.
Call Number: ML 3920.C17.

This author explores the use of imagery and music with surgery, anxiolytic music, and music used during recovery from surgery. It was found that listening to music along with using imagery three days before surgery helps with postoperative recovery. Linda Rogers’ work reveals that patients do hear under anesthesia and that anxiolytic music does reduce anxiety. She recommends that audiotapes selected by each patient be played before, during, and after surgery on cassette players with earphones. Ralph Spintge studied the effects of music on 97, 000 patients, before, during, and after surgery, and 97% reported that music helped them relax during recovery. It was indicated that soft tonal music was most effective.

Godbey, F., Wolfe, L. (1997). Sensory healing. Prevention, 4, 24-25.

This study involved colorectal surgery patients. It compared patients who listened to music tapes three days before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery, to those who did not listen to music. The results indicated that the listeners experienced half the postoperative anxiety and used half as much painkiller.

Long, C. (1996). Doctors find music works well with sedative and anesthetics. Insight on the News, 12, 41.

This author addresses music related to anesthesia and pain. He speaks of New Age musician Iasos’ music reducing the need for anesthetics and medicine required prior to surgery and aiding patients to awaken in a calm state. The results indicate that music has an ability to reduce the use of anesthesia, along with slowing down the patients’ breathing, producing a sedative response. Entraining is effective, and music reduced the amount of pain medication needed after surgery.

MacClelland, D. (1979). Music in the operating room. AORN Journal, 29, 252-260.

This article assesses the emotional and physiological effects of music and the application of music during surgery. The author explores the use of music in surgery quite thoroughly, giving precise information based on other studies.

Rogers, L. (1995). Music for surgery. Advances: The Journal for Mind, Body, Health, 11, 49-58.

This author talks about patients’ anxiety in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative period. He reports that familiar music evokes too many memories and associations. His research reveals that melody can promote tension instead of relaxation, and that anxiolytic music (music avoiding songs, lyrics, and singing), creates a free flow of music, which allows patients to relax. Results indicate that audiotapes and postoperative tapes are helpful. There is evidence that tone, volume, and pitch elicit responses in listeners.

Standley, J. (1986). Music research in medical/dental treatment [Meta-analysis and clinical applications]. Journal of Music Therapy, 23, 56-122.

This article analyzes and applies music therapy to all fields of medicine. The article presents results from studies about the use of music in dental procedures with patients. The benefits of listening to music before, during, and after surgery are also explored.

Stevens, K. (1990). Patients perceptions of music during surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 1045-1051.

This pilot research study was undertaken at an acute hospital, interviewing twenty-five patients about response to music listened to during surgery. Factors observed were: the health of the patient, the environment, the alertness of the patient, how familiar the music was, and the age of the patient, (which relates to musical experience). The results showed that patients like to choose their own music. Future research is needed to explore the effects of music selected by the patient, or music selected by the anesthetic nurse, determined by the patients’ personality.

Taylor, D. (1997). Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy. St.Louis, Missouri : MMB Music.
Call Number: ML3920.T31.

The sections of this book describe uses of music in preparing for surgery, in the operating room, and during recovery. The author also provides data showing the positive effects of music on surgery patients.


Pain Reduction

Top

Bruscia, K. (1989). Defining Music Therapy. Phoenixville, PA: Barcelona Publishers.
Call Number: ML 3920.B775.

This book defines music, therapy, music therapy, and levels of music therapy. It also provides examples from music therapy literature, one of which is “Music In Medicine.” This author has found that music reduces preoperative anxiety and decreases the amount of medication needed for anesthesia. Music helps awaken postoperative patients and reduces pain.

Godbey, F., Wolfe, L. (1997). Sensory healing. Prevention, 4, 24-25.

This study involved colorectal surgery patients. It compared patients who listened to music tapes three days before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery, to those who did not listen to music. The results indicated that the listeners experienced half the postoperative anxiety and used half as much painkiller.

Heitz, L., Scamman F., Symreng, T. (1992) Effect of music therapy in the post anesthesia care unit [A nursing intervention]. Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 7, 22-31.

This study examined the effect music had on pain and respiration in the post anesthesia care unit and the effect music had on patients’ experience in the PAU. There were three control groups under study. Group one did not wear headphones, group two wore headphones but heard no music, and group three wore headphones and listened to music. The results were that group three was able to wait much longer before requiring anesthesia and reported a much more pleasant experience from one day to one month after surgery.

Locsin, R. (1981). The effect of music on the pain of selected post-operative patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 6, 19-25.

This article examines the effect of music on patients during a two-day period after surgery. The goal of the study was to determine whether music was an effective way to distract patients from their pain after surgery. The study found that pain was decreased in the forty-eight hour period after surgery due to the use of music.

Long, C. (1996). Doctors find music works well with sedative and anesthetics. Insight on the News, 12, 41.

This author addresses music related to anesthesia and pain. He speaks of New Age musician Iasos’ music reducing the need for anesthetics and medicine required prior to surgery and aiding patients to awaken in a calm state. The results indicate that music has an ability to reduce the use of anesthesia, along with slowing down the patients’ breathing, producing a sedative response. Entraining is effective, and music reduced the amount of pain medication needed after surgery.


Physiological Effects

Top

Amodei, M., Kaempf, G. (1989). The effect of music on anxiety. AORN Journal, 50, 112-118.

This study evaluated the effects of sedative music on the anxiety of patients in the operating room holding area. The patients were divided into two groups: the control group and the experimental group. Results showed that the experimental group had a significant drop in respiration rates and anxiety test scores. Systolic blood pressure changed slightly. It was noted that policies should be developed to allow patients to use their own audiocassette players and that patients might like to choose their own music.

Frandsen, J. (1990). Music is a valuable anxiolytic during local and regional anesthesia. Nurse Anesthesia, 1,181-182.

The author of this article explores the use of music as an alternative to pharmacological sedation. It reveals that music can reduce preoperative disease and anxiety. The selection of music is based on the patients’ preference, guided by the anesthetist’s knowledge of the physiological and emotional effects of the music. It was found that music affects the higher cerebral centers, along with the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and metabolic systems.

Heitz, L., Scamman F., Symreng, T. (1992) Effect of music therapy in the post anesthesia care unit [A nursing intervention]. Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 7, 22-31.

This study examined the effect music had on pain and respiration in the post anesthesia care unit and the effect music had on patients’ experience in the PAU. There were three control groups under study. Group one did not wear headphones, group two wore headphones but heard no music, and group three wore headphones and listened to music. The results were that group three was able to wait much longer before requiring anesthesia and reported a much more pleasant experience from one day to one month after surgery.

Long, C. (1996). Doctors find music works well with sedative and anesthetics. Insight on the News, 12, 41.

This author addresses music related to anesthesia and pain. He speaks of New Age musician Iasos’ music reducing the need for anesthetics and medicine required prior to surgery and aiding patients to awaken in a calm state. The results indicate that music has an ability to reduce the use of anesthesia, along with slowing down the patients’ breathing, producing a sedative response. Entraining is effective, and music reduced the amount of pain medication needed after surgery.

MacClelland, D. (1979). Music in the operating room. AORN Journal, 29, 252-260.

This article assesses the emotional and physiological effects of music and the application of music during surgery. The author explores the use of music in surgery quite thoroughly, giving precise information based on other studies.

Matejek, M., Miluk-Kolasa, B., Stupnicki, R. (1996). The effects of music listening on changes in selected physiological parameters in adult pre-surgical patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 208-218.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of music on patients undergoing surgery. The article describes the procedure and the data that was produced. This article concludes by accepting music listening as an acceptable way to reduce preoperative stress.

Mazie, D. (1992). Music’s surprising power to heal. Reader’s Digest, 141, 174-178.

This author explores music and stress, music and the production of endorphins and S-IgA, and music used by surgeons. It is reported that music can lower blood pressure, basal metabolism, and respiration rates, lessening physiological responses to stress. He reports that music may help increase production of endorphins (natural pain relievers), and S-IGA (salivary immunoglobulin A), which speeds up healing, reduces the danger of infections, and controls heart rate. It was also reported that the surgical team reduced their anxiety during surgery by listening to music by Mozart and Brahms.


Preoperative Procedures

Top

Amodei, M., Kaempf, G. (1989). The effect of music on anxiety. AORN Journal, 50, 112-118.

This study evaluated the effects of sedative music on the anxiety of patients in the operating room holding area. The patients were divided into two groups: the control group and the experimental group. Results showed that the experimental group had a significant drop in respiration rates and anxiety test scores. Systolic blood pressure changed slightly. It was noted that policies should be developed to allow patients to use their own audiocassette players and that patients might like to choose their own music.

Bruscia, K. (1989). Defining Music Therapy. Phoenixville, PA: Barcelona Publishers.
Call Number: ML 3920.B775.

This book defines music, therapy, music therapy, and levels of music therapy. It also provides examples from music therapy literature, one of which is “Music In Medicine.” This author has found that music reduces preoperative anxiety and decreases the amount of medication needed for anesthesia. Music helps awaken postoperative patients and reduces pain.

Chetta, H. (1981). The effect of music and desensitization on preoperative anxiety in children. Journal of Music Therapy, 18, 74-87.

A study was done to examine the use of music on children. Music was used to inform children about what was going to happen to them before surgery. This use of music reduced the preoperative anxiety in children.

Frandsen, J. (1990). Music is a valuable anxiolytic during local and regional anesthesia. Nurse Anesthesia, 1,181-182.

The author of this article explores the use of music as an alternative to pharmacological sedation. It reveals that music can reduce preoperative disease and anxiety. The selection of music is based on the patients’ preference, guided by the anesthetist’s knowledge of the physiological and emotional effects of the music. It was found that music affects the higher cerebral centers, along with the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and metabolic systems.

Godbey, F., Wolfe, L. (1997). Sensory healing. Prevention, 4, 24-25.

This study involved colorectal surgery patients. It compared patients who listened to music tapes three days before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery, to those who did not listen to music. The results indicated that the listeners experienced half the postoperative anxiety and used half as much painkiller.

Long, C. (1996). Doctors find music works well with sedative and anesthetics. Insight on the News, 12, 41.

This author addresses music related to anesthesia and pain. He speaks of New Age musician Iasos’ music reducing the need for anesthetics and medicine required prior to surgery and aiding patients to awaken in a calm state. The results indicate that music has an ability to reduce the use of anesthesia, along with slowing down the patients’ breathing, producing a sedative response. Entraining is effective, and music reduced the amount of pain medication needed after surgery.

Matejek, M., Miluk-Kolasa, B., Stupnicki, R. (1996). The effects of music listening on changes in selected physiological parameters in adult pre-surgical patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 208-218.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of music on patients undergoing surgery. The article describes the procedure and the data that was produced. This article concludes by accepting music listening as an acceptable way to reduce preoperative stress.

Miller, R., Rohner, S. (1980). Degrees of familiar and affective music and their effects on state anxiety. Journal of Music Therapy, 17, 2-15.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of music on high-anxiety people. Sedative music was found to have a calming affect on high-anxiety people.

Rogers, L. (1995). Music for surgery. Advances: The Journal for Mind, Body, Health, 11, 49-58.

This author talks about patients’ anxiety in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative period. He reports that familiar music evokes too many memories and associations. His research reveals that melody can promote tension instead of relaxation, and that anxiolytic music (music avoiding songs, lyrics, and singing), creates a free flow of music, which allows patients to relax. Results indicate that audiotapes and postoperative tapes are helpful. There is evidence that tone, volume, and pitch elicit responses in listeners.

Standley, J. (1986). Music research in medical/dental treatment [Meta-analysis and clinical applications]. Journal of Music Therapy, 23, 56-122.

This article analyzes and applies music therapy to all fields of medicine. The article presents results from studies about the use of music in dental procedures with patients. The benefits of listening to music before, during, and after surgery are also explored.

Taylor, D. (1997). Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy. St.Louis, Missouri : MMB Music.
Call Number: ML3920.T31.

The sections of this book describe uses of music in preparing for surgery, in the operating room, and during recovery. The author also provides data showing the positive effects of music on surgery patients.

Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. (1975). The effect on children’s and parents’ stress responses and adjustment. Pediatrics, 56, 187-202.

This study involved the assessment of a variety of preoperative psychological supports aimed at reducing stress in pediatric patients and their parents. The conclusion was that preoperative discussion of the activities before and after surgery greatly lowered anxiety.


Recovery

Top

Bruscia, K. (1989). Defining Music Therapy. Phoenixville, PA: Barcelona Publishers.
Call Number: ML 3920.B775.

This book defines music, therapy, music therapy, and levels of music therapy.It also provides examples from music therapy literature, one of which is “Music In Medicine.”This author has found that music reduces preoperative anxiety and decreases the amount of medication needed for anesthesia.Music helps awaken postoperative patients and reduces pain.

Campbell, D. (1997). The Mozart Effect. New York: Avon Books.
Call Number: ML 3920.C17.

This author explores the use of imagery and music with surgery, anxiolytic music, and music used during recovery from surgery.It was found that listening to music along with using imagery three days before surgery helps with postoperative recovery. Linda Rogers’ work reveals that patients do hear under anesthesia and that anxiolytic music does reduce anxiety. She recommends that audiotapes selected by each patient be played before, during, and after surgery on cassette players with earphones. Ralph Spintge studied the effects of music on 97, 000 patients, before, during, and after surgery, and 97% reported that music helped them relax during recovery.It was indicated that soft tonal music was most effective.

Godbey, F., Wolfe, L. (1997). Sensory healing. Prevention, 4, 24-25.

This study involved colorectal surgery patients.It compared patients who listened to music tapes three days before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery, to those who did not listen to music.The results indicated that the listeners experienced half the postoperative anxiety and used half as much painkiller.

Heitz, L., Scamman F., Symreng, T. (1992) Effect of music therapy in the post anesthesia care unit [A nursing intervention]. Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 7, 22-31.

This study examined the effect music had on pain and respiration in the post anesthesia care unit and the effect music had on patients’ experience in the PAU. There were three control groups under study. Group one did not wear headphones, group two wore headphones but heard no music, and group three wore headphones and listened to music. The results were that group three was able to wait much longer before requiring anesthesia and reported a much more pleasant experience from one day to one month after surgery.

Locsin, R. (1981). The effect of music on the pain of selected post-operative patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 6, 19-25.

This article examines the effect of music on patients during a two-day period after surgery. The goal of the study was to determine whether music was an effective way to distract patients from their pain after surgery. The study found that pain was decreased in the forty-eight hour period after surgery due to the use of music.

Rogers, L. (1995). Music for surgery. Advances: The Journal for Mind, Body, Health, 11, 49-58.

This author talks about patients’ anxiety in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative period. He reports that familiar music evokes too many memories and associations.His research reveals that melody can promote tension instead of relaxation, and that anxiolytic music (music avoiding songs, lyrics, and singing), creates a free flow of music, which allows patients to relax. Results indicate that audiotapes and postoperative tapes are helpful. There is evidence that tone, volume, and pitch elicit responses in listeners.

Standley, J. (1986). Music research in medical/dental treatment [Meta-analysis and clinical applications]. Journal of Music Therapy, 23, 56-122.

This article analyzes and applies music therapy to all fields of medicine.The article presents results from studies about the use of music in dental procedures with patients.The benefits of listening to music before, during, and after surgery are also explored.

Taylor, D. (1997). Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy. St.Louis, Missouri : MMB Music.
Call Number: ML3920.T31.

The sections of this book describe uses of music in preparing for surgery, in the operating room, and during recovery. The author also provides data showing the positive effects of music on surgery patients.

Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. (1975). The effect on children’s and parents’ stress responses and adjustment. Pediatrics, 56, 187-202.

This study involved the assessment of a variety of preoperative psychological supports aimed at reducing stress in pediatric patients and their parents.The conclusion was that preoperative discussion of the activities before and after surgery greatly lowered anxiety.


Sedation in the Operating Room

Top

Augustin P. (1996). Effect of music on ambulatory surgery patients’ preoperative anxiety. AORN Journal, 63, 750-758.

This study examined the use of music to decrease preoperative patients’ anxiety. It suggests that familiar music can positively affect patients’ hospitalization experiences and surgery. The results indicate that music blocks out background noise of the operating room and can help a patient decrease negative surgical experiences.

Barnes, C., Kenny F., Call, T., & Reinhart, J. (1972). Measurement in management of anxiety in children for open-heart surgery. Pediatrics, 49, 250-259.

This reference describes a study of eleven children undergoing open-heart surgery with an emphasis on observing neuro-endocrine and behavior responses. A child psychiatrist and a pediatric nurse assessed the children before and after their surgeries. This article justifies the importance of using music as a way to relieve or lessen stress and anxiety.

Campbell, D. (1997). The Mozart Effect. New York: Avon Books.
Call Number: ML 3920.C17.

This author explores the use of imagery and music with surgery, anxiolytic music, and music used during recovery from surgery. It was found that listening to music along with using imagery three days before surgery helps with postoperative recovery. Linda Rogers’ work reveals that patients do hear under anesthesia and that anxiolytic music does reduce anxiety. She recommends that audiotapes selected by each patient be played before, during, and after surgery on cassette players with earphones. Ralph Spintge studied the effects of music on 97, 000 patients, before, during, and after surgery, and 97% reported that music helped them relax during recovery. It was indicated that soft tonal music was most effective.

Godbey, F., Wolfe, L. (1997). Sensory healing. Prevention, 4, 24-25.

This study involved colorectal surgery patients. It compared patients who listened to music tapes three days before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery, to those who did not listen to music. The results indicated that the listeners experienced half the postoperative anxiety and used half as much painkiller.

Long, C. (1996). Doctors find music works well with sedative and anesthetics. Insight on the News, 12, 41.

This author addresses music related to anesthesia and pain. He speaks of New Age musician Iasos’ music reducing the need for anesthetics and medicine required prior to surgery and aiding patients to awaken in a calm state. The results indicate that music has an ability to reduce the use of anesthesia, along with slowing down the patients’ breathing, producing a sedative response. Entraining is effective, and music reduced the amount of pain medication needed after surgery.

MacClelland, D. (1979). Music in the operating room. AORN Journal, 29, 252-260.

This article assesses the emotional and physiological effects of music and the application of music during surgery. The author explores the use of music in surgery quite thoroughly, giving precise information based on other studies.

Rogers, L. (1995). Music for surgery. Advances: The Journal for Mind, Body, Health, 11, 49-58.

This author talks about patients’ anxiety in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative period. He reports that familiar music evokes too many memories and associations. His research reveals that melody can promote tension instead of relaxation, and that anxiolytic music (music avoiding songs, lyrics, and singing), creates a free flow of music, which allows patients to relax. Results indicate that audiotapes and postoperative tapes are helpful. There is evidence that tone, volume, and pitch elicit responses in listeners.

Standley, J. (1986). Music research in medical/dental treatment [Meta-analysis and clinical applications]. Journal of Music Therapy, 23, 56-122.

This article analyzes and applies music therapy to all fields of medicine. The article presents results from studies about the use of music in dental procedures with patients. The benefits of listening to music before, during, and after surgery are also explored.

Stevens, K. (1990). Patients perceptions of music during surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 1045-1051.

This pilot research study was undertaken at an acute hospital, interviewing twenty-five patients about response to music listened to during surgery. Factors observed were: the health of the patient, the environment, the alertness of the patient, how familiar the music was, and the age of the patient, (which relates to musical experience). The results showed that patients like to choose their own music. Future research is needed to explore the effects of music selected by the patient, or music selected by the anesthetic nurse, determined by the patients’ personality.

Taylor, D. (1997). Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy. St.Louis, Missouri : MMB Music.
Call Number: ML3920.T31.

The sections of this book describe uses of music in preparing for surgery, in the operating room, and during recovery. The author also provides data showing the positive effects of music on surgery patients.


Surgical Team

Top

Mazie, D. (1992). Music’s surprising power to heal. Reader’s Digest, 141, 174-178.

This author explores music and stress, music and the production of endorphins and S-IgA, and music used by surgeons. It is reported that music can lower blood pressure, basal metabolism, and respiration rates, lessening physiological responses to stress. He reports that music may help increase production of endorphins (natural pain relievers), and S-IGA (salivary immunoglobulin A), which speeds up healing, reduces the danger of infections, and controls heart rate. It was also reported that the surgical team reduced their anxiety during surgery by listening to music by Mozart and Brahms.


Tension Reliever

Top

Rogers, L. (1995). Music for surgery. Advances: The Journal for Mind, Body, Health, 11, 49-58.

This author talks about patients’ anxiety in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative period. He reports that familiar music evokes too many memories and associations. His research reveals that melody can promote tension instead of relaxation, and that anxiolytic music (music avoiding songs, lyrics, and singing), creates a free flow of music, which allows patients to relax. Results indicate that audiotapes and postoperative tapes are helpful. There is evidence that tone, volume, and pitch elicit responses in listeners.