A-Z List


Sexual Abuse

Journal Articles


Case Studies & Victim Stories

Herman, F. (1985). Music therapy for the young child with cerebral palsy who uses Blissymbolics. Music Therapy, 5, 28-36.

This article described children whose communication difficulties are such that they cannot properly express themselves either through speech, facial expressions, or hand movements. The group was made up of six children with cerebral palsy who are confined to wheelchairs, have little or no hand control, and are non-speaking due to involved speech musculature. Blissymbolics is their mode of communication. They have a weekly music therapy session and attend a wheelchair dance program designed for children with lower functioning ability. In the music therapy sessions, they begin with the children telling the therapist (by Blissymbolics) how they feel and they improvise it into a song. Each child then tells their "news of the day" and at the end they create a song with everyone's news included. The children then get to tell a story while music is played. The final minutes of the session were used for the children to reflect on their feelings about what they have experienced. Listening and responding in a group is a shared experience and can help the children discover their common bond of feeling with each other and the people they know. These sessions helped these children to communicate this awareness and bring them out of the isolation created due to the handicapping condition.

Birdenshaw-Fleming, L. (1993). Music for All. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson.
UWEC Call #: ML3920.B52 1993

Cerebral palsy is an irreversible, non-progressive condition caused by damage to the brain at birth. Depending on the area of the brain that is damaged, the person with cerebral palsy has varying degrees of control over trunk, limb, and head movement. The challenge is to find alternate means of communication for each person. Blissymbolics is one method of communication. It is a method based on common words, letters, and certain ideas represented by symbols. Blissymbolics can be used to sing a song or in discussing lyrics.

Child Sexual Abuse

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Brotons, M., & Leitschuh, C. A. (1992). Recreation and Music Therapy for Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse. Journal of physical education, recreation and dance, 62, 52-54.

This article describes a curriculum used for emotionally disturbed boys ranging from ages nine to seventeen.  An 11- week program that was developed to help the children boost their self-esteem using musical activities is described.

Kinnear, K. L. (1995). Childhood Sexual Abuse- A Reference Handbook. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
UWEC call #: HV 6570.K55 1995.

This book contains a lot of recent research done and also states the laws against childhood sexual abuse. It describes some non-musical treatment methods that can be used to help children.  Some of these non-musical treatments may be adapted to incorporate music.

How Different Cultures Deal with Sexual Abuse

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Fontes, L. A. (1995). Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures- Treatment and Prevention. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: HV 6570.2.S49 1995.

This book focuses on different cultures rather than on society as a whole. These cultures range from Jewish to Gay and Lesbian. Each little section talks about sex and gender roles, religious beliefs and family life among other topics. At the end of each chapter is a section on how the abuse is dealt with and how it can be prevented. Music therapists can use this resource to understand more about certain cultures and how abuse affects them; it may give them an idea of how to alter a specific treatment to relate more to the victims culture.

Different Perspectives

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Kelly, L. (1988). Surviving Sexual Violence. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.
UWEC Call #: HV 6561.K45 1998 c.1.

This book provides a view on sexual violence from a female sociologist point of view. This book focuses on the views from feminists and talks about ways of coping, resisting, and surviving.  Music therapists can use this source when dealing with female clients.  It can help the therapist see the female perspective and what music can be used to treat that female client.  It provides an understanding of what the female client may be going through and how music may be used to draw out those thoughts and emotions.

Kauth, K. R., & Jacobsen, P. G.  (1991).  Sexual Abuse on Campus.  Journal of college student development, 32, 561-562.

This article gives a college perspective. It describes how colleges address this problem and how they help victims. This article is short but contains much information and facts.  Music therapists can use this source to get a different perspective and from that perspective see what types of music or treatments may be used to benefit clients.

Sexual Abuse in the Family

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Patton, M. Q. (1991). Family Sexual Abuse- Frontline Research and Evaluation. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: HQ. 72.U53 F36 1991.

This book contains different projects for families to use when sexual abuse has occurred within the family. There are different stories from the families who used these different projects. Music therapists can use this source when involving a family in the treatment. They can help show the family what the child is going through and how their music therapy sessions can help that client through recovery. This source describes ways in which family involvement in the treatment may be facilitated.

Laws Against Sexual Abuse

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Kinnear, K. L. (1995). Childhood Sexual Abuse- A Reference Handbook.California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
UWEC call #: HV 6570.K55 1995.

This book contains a lot of recent research done and also states the laws against childhood sexual abuse. It describes some non-musical treatment methods that can be used to help children. Some of these non-musical treatments may be adapted to incorporate music.

Kauth, K. R., & Jacobsen, P. G. (1991). Sexual Abuse on Campus. Journal of college student development, 32, 561-562.

This article gives a college perspective. It describes how colleges address this problem and how they help victims. This article is short but contains much information and facts. Music therapists can use this source to get a different perspective and from that perspective see what types of music or treatments may be used to benefit clients.

Martial Sexual Abuse

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Finkelhor, D., Ph.D., & Yllo, K., Ph.D. (1985). License to Rape- Sexual Abuse of Wives. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
UWEC call #: HV 6561.F56 1985.

This book presents the problem of abuse in marriages. It describes how marriage and specifically wives are affected and labels the different types of marital rape. This book includes an appendix at the end with a research bibliography. A music therapist can use this source for dealing with family sexual abuse. It may be a useful tool to use to find a treatment that works with the family.

The Mind of the Sexual Abuser

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Faller, K. C. (1990). Understanding Child Sexual Maltreatment. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: HV 6570.F35 1990.

There are really only two sections in this book of special note to the music therapist: What Constitutes Sexual Maltreatment?, and Assessment and Case Management. These sections provide good descriptions about what goes through the mind of a sexual abuser. It includes questions to ask someone if you suspect he/she has been sexually abused. A description of risks and assessments for victims is also included to help music therapists when choosing a musical activity. They will be able to better understand the person who is a sexual abuser and determine whether an expressive type of therapy or a receptive type is a better tool of service.

Bier, J. S., Marlatt, G. A., & McMahon, R. J. (1993). Addictive Behaviors, Across the Life Span- Prevention, Treatment, and Policy Issues. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: RC 563.2.A315 1993.

This book thoroughly explains the behavior of addicts and what a person should expect from them. There was limited information on sexual addicts, but the book explains the behavior of addicts in general. This resource will be helpful for a music therapist because it includes suitable types of music for specific behaviors. It provides a general idea about what kind of reactions to expect when using a song, writing lyrics, or using musical activities during a session.

Possible Treatments & Methods

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Ingersoll, S. L., & Patton, S. O. (1990). Treating Perpetrators of Sexual Abuse. Massachusetts: Lexington Books.
UWEC call #: HQ 72.U53 I53 1990.

This book offers help for talking about different treatment methods for victims of sexual abuse. It contains many diagrams and describes various methods from personal one-on-one recovery to involving the community. Music therapists can use this source to get an idea of possible treatments to use. It may help them to identify how music should be related to the client and at what points in time.

Hollin, C. R., & Howells, K. (1991). Clinical Approaches to Sex Offenders and Their Victims. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
UWEC call #: RC 560.C46 1991.

This book discusses different approaches in treatment and describes different theories about causes, including family perpetuation. The book describes each phase in each stage of treatment and discusses what to expect in each stage. This source will help music therapists have a better understanding of what types of treatments may be more suitable than others when dealing with sexual abuse.

Patton, M. Q. (1991). Family Sexual Abuse- Frontline Research and Evaluation. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: HQ. 72.U53 F36 1991.

This book contains different projects for families to use when sexual abuse has occurred within the family. There are different stories from the families who used these different projects. Music therapists can use this source when involving a family in the treatment. They can help show the family what the child is going through and how their music therapy sessions can help that client through recovery. This source describes ways in which family involvement in the treatment may be facilitated.

Sugarman, A., Ph.D. (1994). Victims of Abuse: The Emotional Impact of Child and Adult Trauma. Connecticut: International Universities Press Inc.
UWEC call #: RC 552.P67 V53 1994.

This book describes the different meanings and types of abuses and discusses methods of treatment. It also presents different stories and case studies of situations in which abuse occurred. Music therapists can use this resource to help them gain a better understanding of a victim’s recovery process.

Mazie, D. M. (1992, August). Music’s Surprising Power to Heal. Reader’s Digest, 1, 174-178.

This source is a great article that tells many stories from hospitals in which music played an important role in a patient’s recovery from illness or injury. It explains different areas in which music therapy is effective in the medical field. This article doesn¹t relate specifically to sexual abuse, but it does an excellent job discussing how music is used in this field. A musical therapist may use these treatment ideas with a client who has been sexually abused.

Fontes, L. A. (1995). Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures- Treatment and Prevention. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: HV 6570.2.S49 1995.

This book focuses on different cultures rather than on society as a whole. These cultures range from Jewish to Gay and Lesbian. Each little section talks about sex and gender roles, religious beliefs and family life among other topics. At the end of each chapter is a section on how the abuse is dealt with and how it can be prevented. Music therapists can use this resource to understand more about certain cultures and how abuse affects them; it may give them an idea of how to alter a specific treatment to relate more to the victim’s culture.

Brotons, M., & Leitschuh, C. A. (1992). Recreation and Music Therapy for Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse. Journal of physical education, recreation and dance, 62, 52-54.

This article describes a curriculum used for emotionally disturbed boys ranging from ages nine to seventeen. An 11- week program that was developed to help the children boost their self-esteem using musical activities is described.

What To Do If You Suspect Someone Is Being Sexually Abused

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Faller, K. C. (1990). Understanding Child Sexual Maltreatment. California: Sage Publications.
UWEC call #: HV 6570.F35 1990.

There are really only two sections in this book of special note to the music therapist: What Constitutes Sexual Maltreatment?, and Assessment and Case Management. These sections provide good descriptions about what goes through the mind of a sexual abuser. It includes questions to ask someone if you suspect he/she has been sexually abused. A description of risks and assessments for victims is also included. This will help music therapists when choosing a musical activity to be able to better understand the person who is a sexual abuser and determine whether they an expressive type of therapy or a receptive type is a better tool for service.
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