A-Z List

Music & Pain Management

Annotated Internet

Internet Address: http://www2.mc.duke.edu/news/inside/970804/9.html

Merritt, R. (1997). Inside: Music Therapy

This site describes the results of a study of the effects of music therapy on patients who had knee replacement surgery. Results indicate that people who listen to music prior to surgery used less pain medication and were discharged from the hospital earlier than patients who did not listen to music prior to surgery. Dr. T. Parker Vail, the physician who performed the knee replacement surgeries, is quoted as saying, "The patients reported that they felt they were not just being treated as a disease, but that we were treating their psyche and managing their pain. One cannot underestimate the value of patients having a positive view of how they’ve been treated in a hospital. It is a very inexpensive way of improving the level of patient satisfaction."

Internet Address: http://web1.tch.harvard.edu/public-affairs/mar98news/news5.html

Music Therapy Lifts Patient’s Spirits, the News (March 1998) - Children’s Hospital

This site explains how music therapy is used at the Children’s Hospital in Boston. Music therapists tailor the music therapy sessions to each individual child’s needs. Children are encouraged to sing and to play instruments which the music therapist provides. One boy who spent 4 months in isolation took to music so well that he is now playing musical instruments at home. All during his treatment the music took his mind off of the pain he was suffering.

Internet Address: http://www.stanleyjordan.com/Healing/mtarticle.html

Jordan, S. (1998). Music Therapy Observations

The author of this article travels the country giving concerts. Mr. Jordan has a keen interest in the healing effects of music. This site shows his observations on the work of various music therapists he has met across the country. Among those discussed is a music therapist in New York’s Beth Israel Hospital who uses music to keep children’s minds off of their pain. (Children are sensitive to anesthetics, and therefore doctors are conservative in the amount of anesthesia they give children.) Also discussed is a music therapist in Seattle who uses music with AIDS and cancer patients to help them manage their care.

Internet Address: http://member.aol.com/kathysl/cancer.html

(1998). Music Therapy with the terminally ill

This site defines the term ‘terminally ill’ and describes the physical and behavioral symptoms, music therapy goals, and the functions of music. It also includes a music therapy activity example that one could use on a patient.

Internet Address: http://www.pain.com/cme/sept97/ocallagahn.cfm

O’Callaghan. (1997). Pain, music creativity, and music therapy in Palliative Care

This article describes the role of music therapy in the relief of pain. Studies presented suggest that music therapy may alter components of pain perception and increase patient relaxation. Four effects of music intervention on pain are: 1) the psychological relationship between music and pain (distraction and pleasant memories associated with the specific music to reduce anxiety, improve relaxation, and support psychotherapy); 2) enhanced cognitive coping strategies in which the patient uses imagery to filter out and reduce the perception of pain; 3) the spinal mechanisms involved in modulation of pain and the activation of inhibitory pathways in the brain stem by auditory pathways or indirect cortical mechanisms; and 4) the role of endorphins that are released in response to one’s favorite music.

Internet Address: http://www.cpa.ca/cjbsnew/1996/ful_perlini.html

H. Perlini, A. P., & Viita, K. A. (1996). Audioanalgesia in the control of experimental pain

This study compares the analgesic effects of listening to preferred music and the effects of listening to disliked music while experiencing pain. It was found that those who underwent pain stimulus while listening to preferred music reported much lower levels of pain than those who did not like the music to which they listened. The study revealed that preferred music reduced the amount of pain experienced.

Internet Address: http://kitten.nsc.edu/students/giffordg/pilotstudy.html

This site describes the effectiveness of music and guided imagery in audioanalgesia. In this study there were 3 groups: (1) a control group which experienced pain without any music; (2) a group that experienced pain while listening to music and undergoing guided imagery; and (3) a group that simply listened to music. The study aimed to show that music with guided imagery was better than music alone when producing an audioanalgesic effect. It was found that although guided imagery and music extended the period of time before the pain-threshold is reached farther than the group that only listened to music, it did not extend the pain-tolerance period of time. A subject for further study is to investigate whether music with guided imagery produces a mood and the analgesic in response to that mood.

Internet Address: http://www.newfile.com/homepage107279888n.htm#A55

Alternative medicine - education and health status are predictors of who likely will use alternative medicines.

Many people these days are turning to alternative medicine to be used in place of or along with conventional medical care. Out of 1,035 people randomly selected from throughout the United States, 40 percent say that they are using some type of alternative health care. However, only 4.4 percent said they rely primarily on alternative medicine. Some of the most frequently used alternative health care treatments are chiropractic care, acupuncture, massage, and music therapy.

Internet Address: http://expressivetherapy.org/bioart.html

Miller, E. B. (?).Music therapy and biofeedback

Due to the availability of the microcomputer and computerized data acquisition systems in the 1990s, the applications of biofeedback have grown. At the present, biofeedback can be used to treat disorders such as general stress, low back pain, hypertension, migraines, and muscle contraction headaches. As biofeedback grows, the search for other therapies that will help biofeedback to become more effective has started. Music therapy has been found to greatly increase the effectiveness of biofeedback. For example, music that is chosen by the subject can be used to aid in relaxation. Drumming has been shown to alter Beta/Theta ratios when observing EEG.

Internet Address: http://www.seasons.org/music.htm

Season's Hospice. (1997). Music Therapy and Hospice Care

This article explains the role that music therapy will take at Season’s Hospice in the Chicagoland area. It says that a Board Certified music therapist can and will help raise the quality of life of those in the hospice by addressing their psycho-social concerns, giving them spiritual care, and taking care of their physical needs (i.e. pain management). Some of the techniques that music therapy will use are lyric analysis, guided imagery, rhythm sessions, and song choice.