A-Z List


Language Disorders

Annotated Journals

Cohen, N. S. (1988). The use of superimposed rhythm to decrease the rate of speech in a brain-damaged adolescent. Journal of Music Therapy. 25, 2. 85-93.
Call #:UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

This article discusses the use of music therapy in the field of neuro-psychological rehabilitation , in particular the treatment of brain-damaged patients. One client, an 18-year-old adolescent with right-hemispheric injuries and Kluver-Busy Syndrome, undergone the experiment which took eight months. The experiment was held two years after the injury. The client had communication problems involving rapid hand gestures near her mouth, constant mouthing of her fingers, and an exessively fast rate of speech(537 words per minute compared to the normal rate of 190 words per minute). Rhythm along caused a 28% decrease in speech rate from the original baseline. Because rhythmic processing in the brain is not hemispherically dominant, rhythm can be successfully used as a training source. Client was asked to walk, clap and count one syllable on each finger in order to create a self monitoring rate of speech. Also client imitated sentences after the therapist while tapping the beat on her legs.

Cohen, N. S. (1995). The effect of music cues on the nonpurposive speech of persons with aphasia.Journal of Music Therapy. 31, 1. 46-57.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

Twelve subjects who have been diagnosed with unilateral left hemisphere cerebrovascular accidents(CBA) participated in the experiment. Three experimental conditions in production of speech were used: verbal production only, verbal production with rhythm, and verbal production with melody. One result of a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) may be the aphasia. Aphasia is characterized by general language impairment involving speaking, listening, reading and writing. Music is a valuable tool for rehabilitation with persons with aphasia. Four excerpts of familiar songs were chosen. The three experimental conditions were: the verbal group where subjects were asked to say the words of the chorus, the verbal with rhythm group where subjects where asked to say the words to a steady, rhythmic beat of a hand drum, and the verbal with melody group where subjects were asked to sing the words to the melody that was played on an electric keyboard. Results indicated that the subjects verbal intelligibility was significantly better when they were allowed to speak the song lyrics without any musical assistance.

Darrow, A. A., & Starmer, G. J. (1986). The effect of vocal training on the intonation and rate of hearing impaired children's speech: A pilot study. Journal of Music Therapy. 23, 4. 194-201.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

This study researched the effect of vocal training on hearing impaired children's speech. Hearing impaired persons have a higher Fundamental Frequency and vary pitch less than normal speakers producing slow monotones. The reason for these symptoms is that hearing impaired persons can't monitor the quality and rhythm of their speech. Also deaf children prolong vocalization and pause longer between the words than the hearing children. The goal of this study was to develop adequate communication skills for these patients. Clients used personal hearing aids for sessions. The therapist first played the vocal exercise on the piano while subjects stood on the wooden floor and felt the rhythm by lightly touching the piano and the therapist's throat. Clients were shown to lower or raise the pitch through illustrative body movements and cues from the piano. When clients were asked to speak sentences which had been prerecorded before the treatment sessions, after the treatment clients displayed a lower Fundamental Frequency and an increased range. No effect on speech rate and speech intelligibility was noted.

Madsen, S. A. (1991). The effect of music paired with or without gestures on the learning and transfer of new vocabulary: Experimenter-derived nonsense words. Journal of Music Therapy. 28, 4. 222-230.
Call #: UWEC McIntiyre Library (microfilm).

Melodic or tonal memory in a musical contest is the strongest for most children at the time of their language development. This experiment has shown that music as an additional tool for learning new vocabulary is a good motivator and reinforcer. Also singing songs may provide multisensory experience for children. Music has an ability to make children listen, concentrate, and make the lesson more fun. In the music-gesture group, phrases with nonsense words were sang; in the gesture only group, phrases were spoken. The number of words learned was greater for the music-gesture treatment group than for the gesture only treatment group. Moreover, in the music-gesture group, children looked at the experimenter more frequently, smile, and participated in singing.

Cassidy, J. W. (1992). Communication disorders: Effect on children's ability to label music characteristics. Journal of Music Therapy. 29, 2. 113-124.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

The goal of this study was to elicit correct responses on musical tasks. Eight measures of four prerecorded children's songs were played for two groups of subjects. Twenty-four preschool children attending summer camp for children with communication disorders and twenty-four children with normal language development attending preschools in a large metropolitan area were used for the experiment. Presented excerpts differed in dynamics levels and tempo. Three treatment conditions were used: verbal, verbal/visual, and verbal/gesture. Verbal/visual and verbal/gesture groups scored significantly higher than verbal group alone. The goal of this study highlighted the importance of early mainstreaming for children with language disabilities. It also taught children with normal language development to respect the peers for equal competency in completing the tasks.

Cohen, N. S. (1992). The effect of singing instruction on the speech production of neurologically impaired person. Journal of Music Therapy. 29, 20. 87-102.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

This experiment used a group approach for singing instructions. Subjects who participated in the study had symptoms of apraxia, dysarthria, and Broca's aphasia as a result of traumatic brain injury. Subjects participated in physical exercises for relaxation, vocal exercises that helped breathing and expansion of the vocal ranges, and a rhythmic speech drill. Then subjects sang premorbidly learned songs. The study revealed improvements in rate of speech, verbal intelligibility, and vocal intensity, as well as Fundamental Frequency variability. Some subjects displayed a decrease while others displayed an increase in Fundamental Frequency. Authors acknowledged the lack of available subjects and the need for further research.

Cohen, N. S. (1993). The application of singing and rhythmic instruction as a therapeutic intrvention for persons with neurogenic communication disorders. Journal of Music Therapy. 30, 2. 81-99.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of singing instruction and rhythmic instruction on the rate and verbal intelligibility of neurologically impaired persons. Three treatment groups were used: a rhythmic instruction group, a singing instruction group, and a control group. After taking into consideration the influence of age, premorbid musical experience, and a type of neurological impairement on speech production, results revealed that the singing group made the most progress.

Buday, E. M. (1995). The effects of signed and spoken words taught with music on sign and speech imitation by children with autism. Journal of Music Therapy. 32, 3. 189-202.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

In this study music was used to improve better memory for manual signs with children with autism. Signs were taught under two conditions. The first condition involved signs taught in conjunction with music and speech, the second condition involved signs taught in conjunction with rhythm and speech. The results of this study show the importance of using music simultaneously with a communication context to promote better pragmatic skills with children with autism.



Staum, M. J. (1987). Music notation to improve the speech prosody of hearing impaired children. Journal of Music Therapy. 24, 3. 146-159.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

This study used rhythmic units such as: quarter-notes, quarter rest, half-note, triplet, and sixteenth-note pattern with verbal elements to improve the verbal rhythmic and intonation accuracy of hearing impaired children. Children vocalized these units (patterns) during all treatment sessions. While all children learned a number of rhythmic and inflectional patterns, children with reading skills improved the most. Therefore, the study suggests that the use of music notation written below printed words can be a beneficial visual cue for verbal, rhythmic, and intonation accuracy for the hearing impaired population.

Thaut, M. H. (1985). The use of auditory rhythm and rhythmic speech to aid temporal muscular control in children with gross motor dysfunction. Journal of Music Therapy. 22, 3. 108-128.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (microfilm).

Rhythmical Intention in this study was used to improve motor skills of 24 male children ages 6 through 8. Rhythmic intention, a clinical technique, employs children's speech to guide their movements. Subjects were asked to perform a gross motor pattern consisting of two consecutive side steps, a hand clap above the head, and a hand slap on both thighs. Percussion instruments (auditory rhythm) and a chant pattern (rhythmic speech) were successful in aiding the muscular control in a complex gross motor sequence.

Birkenshaw, L. (1982). Music for fun, music for learning.
Call #: IMC MT 3 .C35 B6 1982 c.1 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book focuses on the use of poems to help children and adults overcome speech impairments such as stuttering. It is proven that the use of rhythmic beats to help people speak more fluently works very well. This author believes that since poems have a natural fluidity, it will aid those with speech impairments to be able to speak more clearly and concisely.

Boxill, E. H. (1985). Music therapy for the developmentally disabled.
Call #: ML 3920 .B59 1985 c.1 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

According to the section in this book entitled, “Psychobiological Bases” this author believes that music therapy works with persons with Developmental Disabilities, specifically those with language disorders because music communicates with the body through other senses. The brain receives sensory information through music and can understand it. This author believes that music helps the body run together as a system, and therefore can aid those with language disorders to make sense of the information they are receiving.

Campbell, P. S. (1995). Music in childhood: From preschool through the elementary grades.
Call #: IMC MT 1.C226 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

According to this text, children with learning disabilities are defined as those who have trouble interpreting and using language skills, listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, and mathematical comprehension. This text lists off several different techniques used by LD Music Teachers to help enhance the students performance in these areas. It also goes on to talk about how LD children have trouble receiving information and comprehending it simultaneously. Therefore it is important for the teacher to do one thing at a time and then move on to teach to demonstrate the connection to another thing later.

Eagle, C. T. (?). Music therapy for handicapped individuals.
Call #: ML 3920 .E2 c.1 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This text is a list of annotated bibliographies of studies done on music therapy projects. This book lists over 200 different studies on the uses of music therapy to aid those in need. This book references over 23 different uses of music therapy for language and communication disorders.

Grahm, R. M., & Beer, A. S. (?). Teaching music therapy to the exceptional child.
Call #: MT 1 .G78 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

Many times music therapist encounter people with speech impairments such as, stuttering, voice-quality disorders, delayed speech and language articulation problems. Music can be used to help these people gain a more clear form of speech. This text gives several suggestions on how to work with a speech clinician to help a child with speech impairments through the use of music. It also gives an example of a lesson plan designed by a music therapist. This lesson plan describes musical activities that can be used to encourage the child to learn to overcome his/her speech impairment.

Krout, R. (1986). Music therapy in special education: Developing and maintaining social skills necessary for mainstreaming.
Call #: ML 3920 .K74 1986 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This text discusses the concerns of mainstreaming students with special education needs into regular classes. Music therapists have studied the use of music with this population and found that music use can drastically improve these children's performance after mainstreaming. It helps improve the academic and socialization skills of the students with special needs.

Sona D. Nocera, S. D. (?). Reaching the special learner through music.
Call #: IMC MT 10 .N72 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

Music therapy can be used for people with language disorders as well as speech impairments. These are two very different verbal problems. Language disorders is a problem with WHAT is said, and speech impairment are problems with HOW it is said. Language includes two areas: expressive and receptive. This is the receiving and encoding of verbal messages. Songs with words can be used to facilitate this type of learning. Speech impairments can be due to physical imperfections as well as motor involvement and auditory misperceptions. Music can be used to help children with these impairments to enunciate their vocal sounds as well as words more clearly.

Nordoff P., & Robbins, C. (?). Music therapy for handicapped children.
Call #: ML 3920 .N67 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book discusses the world's inability to communicate effectively with children who are autistic. Music is described as, “a non-conflictual entrance into the child's consciousness.” This text stresses the fact that most kinds of treatment for autism are ineffective due to the difficulty in making contact with children who are autistic. Music is a non-threatening, non-interpersonal way of making and maintaining contact with autistic children. Through music, the therapist can reach the child and begin to bring them out, so that regular communication can be established. The book then goes on to describe three case studies done on three children with autism, and the effects music had on their treatment.

Pratt, R. R. (1986). First research seminar of the ISME Commision on Music Therapy and Music Education.
Call #: ML 3920 .I 85 1986 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This text explains how music has similar properties as language. Music has rhythm and fluency, similar to that of the spoken language. Music is an incentive and motivates those with language disorders to learn language. Music can provide a structure that people can follow, and eventually fade out the music and replace it with language. It is a challenging, yet fun way to teach language to autistic, bilingual, and deaf people, as well as those with the various known language disorders.

Pratt, R. R. (1992). Music therapy and music education for the handicapped.
Call #: ML 3920 .M8976 1992 - McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

Music can also help those that are deaf to improve the quality of their speech. Music helps them learn the fluidity of language so that their speech is more comprehensible. This is usually accomplished through the use of hearing aids, which amplify sounds and make it possible for people with neuro-sensory hearing loss to hear a certain range of frequencies. They can listen to the music and learn to sing along, eventually loosing the need for the music and gaining fluidity of speech.

Bruscia, K. (1991). Case studies in music therapy. Pennsylvania: Barcelona Publishers. 1121 Rapps Dam Road. Phoenixville.
Call #: ML3920.C325 1991 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book presents 42 case histories, each describing the process of music therapy over an extended period of time. The cases included children, adolescents, and adults receiving individual or group therapy in educational, psychiatric, medical or private settings. The case study that I chose is Preverbal Communication Through Music To Overcome A Child’s Language Disorder. This cases describes two years of group and individual music therapy for a five-year old boy with a language disorder. A wide variety of music therapy techniques are used, all aimed at motivating Jamie to communicate, either verbally or nonverbally.

Duetsch, D. (1982). The psychology of music. New York: Academic Press. 111 Fifth Avenue. New York.
Call #: ML3830.P9 1982 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This reference describes the relationship between the brain and the effects that it has when stimulated by music. It explains how music is processed by the listener and the performer. This book focuses on tone perception and the characteristics of music (pitch, loudness, timbre, beats, consonance, and dissonance). It describes types of music which are able to elicit a person’s mood and emotional expression. Relaxation after expression can be induced and recreate a willingness to initiate interactions with other people. It also allows one to expand one’s vocabulary which may be a barrier to communication with other people.

Henry, D. & Knoll, C. (?). Let's talk: music therapy strategies to facilitate communication: A professional study course. Texas: Music Works Publications. Stephenville.
Call #: 3743 - UWEC McIntyre Library Reserve (sound recording).

This sound recording may be used to help therapists develop the ability to motivate people with language disorders to be able to also communicate with their world through the use of music. It is the therapist’s job is to develop skills and strategies that will impact effectiveness as language and communication facilitators. One way that they might approach this job is by using music to create new learning experiences that allows for social interaction within the patient environment to take place. By helping the clients achieve good communication skills the clients will be able to be more independent, have purposeful interaction with others, and express opinions, ideas, and feelings.



Karras, B. (1988). With a smile and a song: Singing with seniors. Maryland: Song Publication. P.O. Box 74. Mt. Airy.
Call #: ML3920.K158 1988 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book contains different types of songs that can be sung with older people. It starts by explaining how to lead a sing-along. It includes lists of seniors’ favorite songs. This book can be used for developing better language skills, social skills, and motor skills through singing.

Michel, D. (?). Music for developing speech and language skills in children: a guide for parents and therapists. Missouri: MMB Music. 103070 Page Industrial Boulevard. Saint Louis.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book explains how through the use of music therapy, music can be used as a treatment tool in language and speech disorders. It also shows how this type of therapeutic work may be used in a form of learning. Since music is a form of communication itself, it teaches how to be able to develop communication with instruments which in turn can be carried through to people. This activity serves as a bridge with people who have language disorders to get them to first communicate through music and then with words. This book also goes on to explain that since music is often performed in groups it can serve as a form of establishing social relationships which is essential for these patients since many of them struggle with communicating in daily life.

Music therapy and music in special education: The international state of art. Utah: Graz Cintra Gomes. Brigham Young University, Provo. (?).
Call #: ML3920.M89754 vol. 1 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This reference emphasizes that the manipulation of instruments can help develop certain movements, allow for personal expression, and provide a challenge for people with language disorders. The students learn to communicate through movements and sound. Music is the communication of information through sound.

Nordoff P., & Robbins, C. (1971). Music therapy in special education. New York: John Day Company
Call #: ML3920.N675 1971 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book describes the problem areas in language disorders for clients and then lists different activities that may be used to help the children overcome these difficulties. Many of the children who are in special education are handicapped and experience language disorders. This book explains different techniques that can be used to develop the muscles needed for speech. The patients also have breathing problems and this reference describes how music can be used to help people work on tone inflection, stress emphasis, breathing, and phrasing of words while singing.

Schalkwijk, F. W. (1994). Music and people with developmental disabilities: Music therapy remedial music making and musical activities. Pennsylvania: Jessica Kinglsey Publishers. 116 Pentonville Road London NI 91B England and 1900 Frost Road, Suite 101 Bristol.
Call #: ML3920.S323 1994 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book is primarily focused on developing motor, cognitive, and social activities to stimulate individual growth among people who have developmental disabilities. Each activity used in working to achieve certain goals with the developmentally disabled describes clinical indications, objectives set and the choice of techniques and musical instruments, and is illustrated through case studies. This incorporation of music into these activities is used as a means to accomplish therapeutic goals.

Sloboda, J. A. (1988). The musical mind: The cognitive psychology of music. New York: Clarendon Press.
Call #: ML3830.553 - UWEC-McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book reflects how music is able to affect people and how we as a society can then use music as a motivator to get people who have maladaptive conditions to achieve certain tasks. This book also suggests that we can use music as a social reward. We can also use music to help people with language disorders understand what the words mean by creating the music to illustrate the meaning of the words.

Schwankovsky, L. M. (1982). Music therapy for handicapped children or other health impaired. Washington, DC: National Association of Music Therapy. 804 D Street, N.E.
Call #: ML3920.S3 1982 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This reference pertains to exploring the primary needs of health impaired children and the roles of the music therapist in treatments and remediation of those needs. It shows how the music therapist, as a component of treatment intervention, effects hospitalization of children and deals with issues of death and dying. It provides and descriptions of 11health disorders of children. The music therapist’s job is to provide a normalized environment which allows for self expression, release of tension, and an opportunity to develop relationships with other peers.

Taylor. D. B. (1997). Biomedical foundations of music therapy. Michigan: MMB. Ann Arbor.
Call #: ML3920.T.31 1997 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Reserve).

This reference describes how the brain is a target organ for sensory input and serves as a mediator of messages which result in physical, emotional, and spiritual well being. It also states that music may help ease pain, decrease anxiety and eating disorders. Musical procedures for treating language disorders accompany a description of normal neurophysiological processes required for language behavior and descriptions of speech disorders and their associated location in the brain.



Ward, D. (1978). Hearts, hands, and voices: Music in the education of slow learners. Oxford University Press. Walton Street, Oxford.
Call #: ML3920.W27 1978 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book looks at slow learners who tend to be noticed in early learning because they have marked difficulty in reading and language skills. Many of them develop a marked degree of unwillingness or an inability to conform to behavior patterns which are expected of them. Throughout the book it states that a person diagnosed with a language disorder may have difficulty communicating with another person. Music can be used as an interactive tool to help improve communication and self expression.

Beggs, C. (1996). Music talks through therapy. Rose Leigh Publishing.
Call #: ML 3920. B417 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This collection of 55 moving and inspirational stories told by Ms. Beggs describes her experiences as a music therapist. These stories express "the importance of the connection between music and people". The story I chose was called Ah. This story was about a ten-year-old autistic boy, from whom Ms. Beggs was trying to get a verbal response. She was not able to speak to him because he would not respond to spoken language, but instead she had to sing in order to communicate with him. Each of the 55 stories told different problems that were solved through the healing powers of music.

Boxill, E. H. (1985). (?). Aspen Publishing Co.
Call #:ML 3920.B59 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book deals with the assessment and treatment of the developmentally disabled through music therapy. It states that singing with a patient is a great way to help with verbal communication to the outside world. It also says that music can be used as a tool to help with short term memory problems. Songs provide an aid for understanding and learning. It gives many examples of activities and goals for communication problems and for use with all types of developmentally disabled clients.

Benenzon, R. O. (1982). Music in Child Psychosis. Charles C. Thomas Publishing
Call #: ML 3920. B3813 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This reference describes music therapy and its success in breaking the communication barrier that is often found with autistic children. Verbal communication is often found only after much nonverbal communication occurs. Music can help develop both verbal and non verbal communication. The book gives many examples of different situations which may be found in children with psychiatric problems. Theories about why the children have the communication problems are presented.

Miller, S. G. (?). Music therapy for handicapped children - speech impaired.
Call #:ML 3920. M5 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This reference describes musical activities, evaluation and progress reports for clients, and a weekly music therapy program. It describes how music can be a helpful tool in the development of speech. Music offers a positive involvement, that focuses on what the child can do instead of what he or she can't do. This is especially good for children at fragile stages who are dealing with such a emotional topic. Music can also help with behavior, social skills, and peer acceptance in a large group setting.

Barry, K. (1987). Language, music and the sign. Cambridge University Press.
Call #: ML 3849.B28 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).


This book describes the relationship between music, poetry and language. It refers to the melody of a song and how singing or saying the words and hearing the music can "excite the soul". This concept could help motivate a person with a language disorder.

Brown, C. C. (?). Tones into words. The University of Georgia Press.
Call #: ML 3849.B842 - UWEC McIntyre Library (Main Stacks).

This book describes the connections between music, poetry, and literature. It contains many examples of poetry that was used musically. This could be a great tool for use in music therapy with people with communication disorders. You could possibly sing a poem to start, and eventually, once the patient is singing comfortably, then you could have the client recite the poem. Many examples are presented in this book.

The musical stages of speech: A development model of pre-verbal sound making pg. 47.
The American Association for Music Therapy. (?).
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (Current Journals).

This journal article covered the topic of pre-verbal communication. It explains the stages of how pre-verbal communication becomes verbal communication. The model they present identifies three musical stages of speech:
Stage I- Crying/Comforting sounds
Stage II-Babbkung,Lalling and Inflected Vocal play
Stage III- Single and Double-Word Utterances
The musical stages of speech combine the cognitive, physical, and emotional components into the foundation for pre-verbal communication and speech.

Buday, E. M. (?). The effects of signed and spoken words taught with music on sign and speech imitation by children with autism.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (Bound Journals).

This journal article describes a study with autistic children which involves music and speech. The children were taught 14 signs under two conditions. One condition involved teaching sign through music and speech. The other involved the same teaching through music and rhythm. In each case the imitation of words favored music training over rhythm training.

Cohen, N. S. (?). The effect of singing instruction on the speech production of neurologically impaired persons.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (Bound Journals).

This journal article describes a study that examined the effects of singing instruction upon eight neurologically impaired adults with speech disorders. They wanted to see if singing instruction would effect their speech . There were six subjects that received singing instruction, three times a week, for 30 min. sessions for a three week period. After the instruction was completed they examined the data and found that 67% of the treated patients had in fact improved their speech.

Hoskins, C. (?). Use of music to increase verbal response and improve expressive language abilities of preschool language delayed children.
Call #: UWEC McIntyre Library (Bound Journals).

This study examined the relationship between sung and spoken words. There were sixteen subjects between the ages of two and five who were all developmentally delayed and mentally retarded. They were divided into three groups and all participated in musical activities with emphasis on increasing expressive language skills. This experiment continued for over ten weeks. A strong relationship was found between spoken and melodic versions of the test taken at the end of the ten weeks.