A-Z List


Social/Emotional

Reflexive Social - 0-2 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will stop fussing or crying when picked up and held.

Rock and sing to the child while holding her in your arms to encourage smiling and quieting.


Reflexive Social - 0-2 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will smile or make sounds when touched and when you talk to her.

Smile and sing to the child when approaching her. Encourage her to respond.

Sing to the child when picking her up, dressing, bathing, and feeding her encourage her to respond.

NOTE: Use gentleness in your touch and voice.

*Motorically Involved: Try bathing the child, wrapping her in a bath blanket so her arms and legs are restrained, and rocking her until she relaxes. It may take persistence on the part of the adult before the child reacts positively. Keep trying.

*Visually Impaired: The child’s response is dependent on your touch and voice as she does not have the visual feedback.


Reflexive Social - 0-2 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will stop fussing or crying when seeing a face or hearing a voice.

Sing to the child when approaching her to encourage quieting as a social response.

*Visually Impaired: Increase the child’s awareness of sound by exaggerating normal sounds.


Attachment - 3-5 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will smile back at a smiling face.

Sing songs about smiling as you smile at the child. Reward her when she smiles back.

*Visually Impaired: The child will learn to smile with her voice. Sing to her often, using a pleasant voice. When she vocalizes with cooing and other pleasant sounds, imitate her.


Social Play - 3-5 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will laugh when stimulated (i.e., tickling, bouncing, vocal play).

Tickle the child gently on her ribs, her feet, and her neck as you sing funny songs and laugh in a playful manner. Repeat when the child laughs.

Bounce the child in your arms or on your knee as you sing nursery rhymes. Repeat when the child laughs.

Hold the child’s face close to your face and blow on her, whisper in her ear, and sing “ba-ba-ba” or other sounds. Repeat when the child laughs.

*Hearing Impaired: Continue to reward the child when she responds with positive facial or vocal expressions.

*Motorically Impaired: Do not use tickling or bouncing activities if the child tends to stiffen in extension (spasticity).

*Visually Impaired: Do not continue the bouncing activity if the child exhibits fear.


Social Play - 3-5 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will laugh or vocalize with pleasure during rough-house play.

Holding the child firmly, lift her up and down in the air or gently spin around. Make appropriate sounds, such as “whee!” or “up” and laugh with her.

Participate with the child in singing games that require physical contact and tickling. Reward her laughter or vocalizations with more play.

Lie on the floor and let the child rest on your chest facing you, or sit up with the child’s back resting against your knees. You can then gently bounce her up and down as you sing appropriate nursery rhymes. Reward her laughter or vocalizations with more play.

*Hearing Impaired: The child may not laugh out loud but will give pleasure signs, such as smiles and movement.

Motorically Involved: Hold a spastic cerebral palsied child in a flexed position (knees to chest; both arms in front). Then try very gentle tickling or “I’m going to get you” games. Try to get the child’s nose, belly button, toes, etc. Continue as long as the child enjoys it and stays relaxed. Discontinue if the child stiffens.

*Visually Impaired: The child may feel safer if she remains in contact with the ground. Try wrestling with her while she is lying on her back. You may also try holding her in your arms or lap while you bounce her up and down or spin around. Discontinue if the child acts fearful.


Attachment - 3-5 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will extend her arms out to familiar people.

Sing to the child as you pick her up, first holding her gently by the hands, them supporting her under the arm pits.

Encourage the child to reach toward you by holding your arms out and grasping her hands while she lies on her back. After the child grasps your hands firmly, pull her slowly up to a sitting position as you sing to her about sitting up.

Caution: Do not try to pull the child up to a sitting position unril she has enough head control to keep her head from dropping back very far.

*Visually Impaired: The child will learn to recognize familiar voices and may respond by vocalizing and turning toward you when you enter the room.


Attachment - 3-5 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will smile before an adult smiles.

Sing to the child as you approach her but do not smile, giving her a chance to smile first. Reward her with a smile and praise her if she smiles first. If he does not smile within a minute or so, smile and encourage her to imitate your smile.

*Visually Impaired: The child will learn to smile using her voice. Sing to her often. When she vocalizes using cooing and pleasant sounds, imitate her.


Self-Image - 3-5 mos.

Short-term Goal: Chile will smile when she sees herself in a mirror.

When passing a mirror, point to the child’s image and sing his name. Reward him with a hug when she smiles.

Dance in front of a mirror while holding the child in your arms. Encourage her to look in the mirror. Reward her with a hug if she smiles.

*Visually Impaired: Help the child become aware of her own face and other faces by moving her hand across your face and then hers as you sing songs naming your own as well as her facial parts. Change your expression so that she can feel a smile or a surprised look.


Attachment - 3-5 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will watch her mother as she leaves or walks across the room.

Sing “Where Is Mommy?” to the tune of “Where Is Thumbkin?” as you stand or hide in various places around the room. Encourage the child to watch you.

*Visually Impaired: The child will learn to hear you walk across, into, and out of his room. Exaggerate your motions to help her become aware of every sound (i.e., walk heavily; shake the blanket from her bed; call to her from another room). Encourage her to turn toward you as you leave.


Social Play - 6-8 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will laugh when watching others play peek-a-boo or pat-a-cake.

Play peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake in front of the child, encouraging her to participate. Laugh and clap as you finish each game.

Use a blanket, diaper, or towel to cover the baby’s face. Sing “Where Is ________(child’s name)?” to the tune of “Where Is Thumbkin?” and pull off the cover. When the child has experienced this a number of times, she will begin removing the cover from her own face.

Cover your face with a blanket, diaper, or towel and sing “Where is Mommy?”. Encourage the child to find you and reward her with a hug.

*Visually Impaired: Manipulate the child through the movements of pat-a-cake. Peek-a-boo may be played in the form of hide-and-seek where the child is required to turn toward your hiding place you call out. Laugh and reward the child when she laughs.


Independence - 6-8 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will fuss or cry when a favorite toy is taken away.

Play a game of give and take with the child, using different musical instruments. Note whether she seems to prefer a certain toy. Use that toy for more give and take games. If the child fusses when she loses or drops a toy give it back to her immediately.

Caution: If the child does not have use of his hands or arms, hide the instrument from sight and then bring it back into vision.

*Motorically Involved: If the child does not have use of her hands or arms, hide the instrument from sight and them bring it back into vision.

*Visually Impaired: If the child is becoming very attached to an instrument (usually one that is fun to manipulate or makes an unusual sound), try to encourage her to accept other similar instruments so she will broaden her tactile and auditory experiences.


Self-Image - 6-8 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will touch the mirror when seeing her image.

Sing to the child and point to her image in the mirror. Encourage her to point to her image. Reward her with a kiss when she touches the mirror.

Play pat-a-cake with your mirror image and move the child’s hand to pat the mirror. Reward her.

*Mototically Involved: If the child does not have use of her hands manipulate them for her. Decrease assistance as the child gains skill.

*Visually Impaired: Help the child become aware of her own and your body by moving her hand to various body parts on yourself and them on her (i.e., mouth, hands, tummy, feet) as you sing appropriate songs that name the body parts.


Social Play - 6-8 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will play pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo games, giving some appropriate gesture.

Sing a song in which you ask the child how big she is. Raise her arms above her head and sing, “So big!” Do this several times throughout the day and note whether she begins to help you raise her arms.

Play pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo with the child, manipulating her through the actions. Concentrate on a particular gesture such as clapping and encourage her to imitate you.

Encourage the child to imitate you through the complete pat-a-cake game.

*Hearing Impaired: The child will learn to imitate the gestures even though she may not be able to hear the words.

*Visually Impaired: Manipulate the child through all the games many times while saying the words. After several weeks, ask the child if she can play pat-a-cake. If she does not respond, manipulate her through the actions. If she claps, reward her with a hug and praise.


Social Play - 6-8 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will repeat actions or vocalizations when laughed at.

Repeat the child’s vocalizations and/or actions. When she imitates you reward her. For example, if the child begins to hum and play with a bell laugh and imitate her. When she in turn imitates you, reward her.


Independence - 6-8 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will offer something to an adult but will not let go of it.

When the child is playing with a musical instrument, hold your hand out and ask her to show the instrument to you. If she shows it to you but refuses to give it to you, move on the next activity.

First, ask the child to give you a musical instrument. Then, hold out you hand. Reward the child by smiling and laughing when she offers you the instrument, even if she does not release it.


Social Play - 12-15 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will offer something to an adult and will let go of it.

When the child is playing with a musical instrument, hold you hand out and ask the child to give you the musical instrument. Take the instrument and them give it back to her.

First, ask the child to give you a musical instrument. Then, hold out your hand. Reward the child by giving her back the instrument.

*Motorically Involved: Many spastic children do not develop voluntary release until quite late. Help the child to release the object by gently pushing his wrist downward.

*Visually Impaired: Manipulate the child through the action of release (letting go) many times by holding your hand around hers and taking the object from her hand.


Social Play - 12-15 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will initiate ball play, pat-a-cake game or sound games.

Play ball or per-a-cake games may times with the child. Leave a ball where he can reach it.

When the child claps, reward her by saying “Yes! Pat-a-cake” and imitate her.

When the child releases the ball, even if she does so accidentally, say, “Play ball!” and roll it back to her.

Use musical instruments to play sound games. Take turns with the child as you play each instrument.


Social Play - 20-23 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will play near other children on occasion.

Place the child near other children who are playing musical games and singing. Encourage the child when she responds by moving toward them or sitting by them.

NOTE: Children at this age do not generally play with others or share toys. They can, however, learn to imitate other children’s play and may move closer as they become more comfortable with the situation.

*Hearing Impaired: Introduce your child to the other children, explaining to them that she does not hear well.

*Mototically Involved: If the child cannot crawl or move well, place her in a position where she can watch children walking home from school, playing, and in television programs.

*Visually Impaired: Encourage the other children to play with musical toys and to talk to your child. Explain to them that she does not see well.


Independence - 20-23 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will cry when she cannot begin or continue a favorite activity.

Leave musical instruments within the child’s reach so that she can entertain herself. Prepare the child for a change of activity by saying, “In a few minutes we will eat lunch”, or “It’s almost nap time.” Then begin putting away some of the instruments around her. Encourage her to put away the instrument she is holding, or if it won’t interfere with the next activity, let her take one instrument with her. Expect her to cry when you interrupt.


Cooperation - 20-23 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will pick up and put musical instruments away when asked to do so.

Prepare the child for changing activities by saying, “It’s almost time to go.” After a few minutes, begin picking up a few instruments and ask the child to help you. She may pick up only a few at first.

After preparing the child, ask her to put all her toys away. Reward her by offering some juice when all the instruments are put away or with a hug and kiss.

*Motorically Involved: If the child can use her upper extremities, encourage her to put small instruments away into a basket placed near her.

*Visually Impaired: Consistently use a low box or basket that the child can easily reach. Help her to place the instruments in the box or basket. Decrease assistance as the child gains skill.


Independence - 24-27 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will independently choose toys and entertain herself.

Place an open basket filled with musical instruments near the child. Show her the instruments in it and tell her to get something to play. When she is engrossed in an activity, leave the room for short periods. Reward her for playing be herself by making comments about what she is doing or occasionally helping her with an instrument she is unable to manipulate.

NOTE: Keep an instrument box in a consistent place and encourage the child to choose her own instruments and play without being asked to do so.

*Motorically Involved: If the child is immobile, tie lightweight instrument to her wrists and ankles and reward her when she attempts to play them.

*Visually Impaired: Place the child in consistently defined areas throughout the day (i.e., toddler chair with encircling table, mat on the floor) and put her instruments within reach of her hands and feet. Encourage her to play by shaking a maracca or guiding her foot to tit a drum.


Social Play - 24-27 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will usually play beside, but not with, other children.

Take the child to a place where other children are engaged in musical activities such as singing games and playing instruments. Show the child what the other children are doing. Name the other children and introduce your child. An older child will often try to involve the younger child in play. Make sure the child has her own, not another child’s instrument to play.

*Hearing Impaired: Introduce your child to the other children, explaining that she cannot hear well.

*Motorically Involved: If the child cannot crawl or move well, place her beside other children while they are playing and give her an appropriate instrument. Reward her for watching the children and for any attempts to imitate them.

*Visually Impaired: Encourage other children to play with their musical instruments and to call the child by name, touching her gently. Reward the child when she responds positively.


Cooperation - 24-27 mos.

Short-term goals: Child will imitate domestic activities.

Sing the song “This Is the Way We Wash Our Clothes” as you do the laundry. Use different verses for the different household tasks (i.e., sweep the floor, wash the dishes, wet the table, wash the sink). Let the child play with appropriate objects and reward her for attempts at using them correctly.

*Motorically Involved: If the child has use of her arms, she should be able to imitate washing dishes, sewing, and carpentry, as well as other activities.

*Visually Impaired: Take the child with you as you do some of your household chores. Guide her through the activities, describe each activity, and explain why you are doing it.


Self-Image - 32-35 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will identify his own sex.

Show pictures of boys and girls to the child as you sing songs which ask “Where’s the girl?”. Reward her for appropriate response. Show her a picture of herself and of a boy and sing the song. Ask the child if he as a girl and encourage her to shake her head or say “yes” or “no” appropriately. Ask the child if she is a girl or a boy. Reward her for a correct answer.

When the child is with a group of other children, you may use a simple dance activity in which the boys step forward first and them the girls step forward. Help each child perform the dance correctly.

*Hearing Impaired: Use gestures to indicate sex. Make sure these gestures are consistent with the chosen communication system.

*Visually Impaired: The child will not recognize these differences until much later, although she may be able to discriminate between the voices of men and of women.


Cooperation - 32-35 mos.

Short-term goal: Child will begin to understand taking turns.

Give the child the opportunity to participate in singing games or playing musical instruments with children her own age or slightly older. Reward her when she begins to share instruments or take turns with the other children. Encourage the child to give a sibling or friend one of her instruments to play. Use words such as “wait”, “your turn”, and “next”.

*Motorically Involved: If the child does not have use of her hands and arms, help her manipulate a musical instrument and then give another child a turn.

*Visually Impaired: Describe the actions of the other children (i.e., what they are doing, whose turn it is). Tell the child when it is her turn to sing or play and when it is another child’s turn.