A-Z List


Visual Impairments

Annotated Journals


Codding, P. (1982). Music therapy for handicapped children - visually impaired. Washington, D.C.: NAMT
Call #: McIntyre Library ML 3920.C6

Codding gives the clinical characteristics of visually impaired children. This book describes the development of common skills, academic skills, motor skills, and emotional and socialization skills with examples of goals and target areas. There is a good diagram of the eye on page 6.

Kenny, C. B. (ed). (1995). Listen, playing, creating: Essays on the power of sound. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Call #: McIntyre Library # ML 3920.K38

This is a book of essays about Music Therapy written by current, practicing Music Therapists. All of the essays deal with the power of sound, music and silence. They give examples of listening ideas and goals, playing musical instruments, and creating music with the visually impaired and those clients who are not. The ideas given could be used with both populations.

Clark & Chadwick. (1980). Clinacally adapted instruments for the multipl handicapped. St. Louis, MO: Magnamusic -Baton.
Call #: MacIntyre Library #ML 3920.C57



This is a sourcebook, albeit, a little dated. It shows visual and descriptive adaptations of instruments, both simple instruments and traditional instruments. It also gives explanations of each adaptation. This sourcebook would only help with visually handicapped who have additional disabilities.

Krout, R. (1986). Music therapy in special education. St. Louis, MO: MMB Music.
Call #: MacIntyre Library #ML 3920.K74

This resource is a concise how-to book about designing and charting goals. It gives examples of information to include as assessment tools, how to target skills, and how to measure improvement. It also gives examples of evaluation forms and shows how to write evaluations.

Mills, P. H. (1992). Helping the special learner through musical activities. Paula Mills.
Call #: MacIntyre Library #ML 3920.M535.

This is a great book of musical examples for helping the special learner. It is full of short, easy songs to help the client learn about numbers, name learning, holidays, beginning and ending of sessions, etc.It includes full instructions and suggestions for each song.

Bruscia, K., ed. (1991). Case studies in music therapy. Phoenixville, PA: Barcelona Publishers.
Call #: McIntyre Library ML 3920. C325.

Several case studies are cited with many different impairments. Only two involve visual handicaps. In the first chapter, an essay called "Like Sing with a Bird: Improvisational Music Therapy with a Blind 4-year-old", written by Gonzales & Salas, talks about working with improving the voice and pitch-matching. A case study by Shoemark talks about "Piano Improvisation in Blind Boy with Behavioral Disturbances". This boy had inappropriate behaviors coupled with his blindness.

Eagle, C. (1982). Music therapy for handicapped individuals - annotated and indexed bibliography, Washington D. C., NAMT.
Call #: McIntyre Library ML 3920.E2

This is basically an annotated bibliography, as it states in the title. It covers the Music Therapy journals and books published prior to 1981. It references Visual impairment on page 19 and page 23. - Visual discrimination. On page 19 it also references the visually handicapped [PL94-142 category]. It gives a short blurb on books dealing with each handicap indexed in the front of the book.

Sullivan, T. (1976). If you could see what I hear. New York: New American Library.
Calling #: McIntyre Library ML 410.S953

This is an inspiring autobiography of a blind musician. Tom Sullivan tells the story of his life, from being born premature, with the oxygen in the incubator causing his blindness, to being accepted to Providence College and the subsequent meeting of his future wife. His blindness never stopped him from living life fully, and his mother helped him "avoid the habits that make so many blind people awkward, embarrassing and unattractive." At fifteen, he was given a voice test and was found to have perfect pitch. That was the beginning of an art "that [took] me to a life of independence and material comforts."

Hamilton, H. J. (1985). Songs for the senses: A primer. Eden Prairie, MN, H. J. Hamilton.
Call #: McIntyre Library ML 410.S953

This book gives many musical examples with specific activities for sensory stimulation with music.

Library of Congress. (1997) Braille Scores Catalog. Washington, D.C.: National Library Service for the Blind & Physically Handicapped.
Call #: McIntyre Library U.S.Gov’t. stacks ML-LC 192:M 97/13/pt. 1-2

This resource is an ongoing (continually updated) catalog of musical scores in Braille, published specifically for the blind.

Harell, L. (1987). Preschool vision stimulation: It's more thana flashlight. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
Call #: McIntyre Library IMC Professional Library #HV1642.H37

This resource gives a developed perspective for the visually and multiply handicapped infants and pre-schoolers.

Rasar, L. A. (1999). Reserve Listing - (IDIS 103).
Call #: McIntyre Library Reserve Listing IDIS 103 VIS/IM

This handout for Music Therapy students gives definitions of blindness, and lists goals of a therapy session.

Michell, D. (1976). Music therapy: An introduction to therapy and special education through music. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, Ill.
Call #: McIntyre Reserve Library MUS/TH/AN/I.

Michel wrote a textbook for the Music Therapy student. The excerpt dealing with visual disability is in the McIntyre Library Reserve Listings. It cites a landmark study in music therapy that found music "not only useful in helping blind persons learn rhythmic movement, ...in developing mobility skills ......but also, in developing social skills." He also talks about how music can help with self esteem, in addition to more specific goals, i.e., mobility and confidence in spatial movements. He then addresses the question of goals and assessment with a client who is blind and retarded and shows how to target self-help skills.

Priestley, M. (1975). Music therapy in action. New York: St. Martins Press.
Call #: McIntyre Reserve Library MUS/TH/AN/I


This resource is a very short excerpt from a Music Therapy textbook. The author basically states that the music therapist should not assume that all blind people are musical. "For those that are, richness of musical texture with varied timbre and rich harmonies can do something to compensate for lack of visual light and colour." Priestley talks about instruments and vocal performance that can enhance the musically inclined blind client’s environment.

Alvin, J. (1966). Music therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Call #: McIntyre Reserve Library MUS/TH

This resource is a short excerpt from a Music Therapy text relating to vocal training and cues to help the blind person realize spatial awareness. It states that development of auditory perception can teach a blind client to rely on listening skills to sense sequences of sounds to develop better spatial awareness.

Levine, S. J. (1968). The recorded aid for braille music. In Greenville, N.C.: The Nat'l Association for Music ; Journal of Music Therapy.
Call #: McIntyre Reserve Library MUS/TH.

This resource is a report of a set of materials developed in 1968 to assist the blind student in the study of instrumental music. It reports on audio tapes of recorded music for instruction of five instruments - clarinet, flute, alto sax, cornet, and trombone. Selections were for Grade II level of difficulty (early Junior high) and were not previously available in Braille. The recordings are in three different performance styles: reduced tempo - no accompaniment, recommended tempo without accompaniment, and recommended tempo with accompaniment. The experience gained "had opened new avenues for research in the use of multi-sensory materials."