A-Z List


Antisocial Behavior

Journal Articles


Behavioral Issues

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Montello, L. & Coons, E. (1998). Effects of active versus passive group Music Therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 35, 49-67.

This study compared the behavioral effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy with those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on 11-14 year olds with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in a special education program in a public middle school. It was hypothesized that students who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviors than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among students in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Results indicate that students improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in the students was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of self-expression in adolescents with EDs or LDs, and group therapy can also provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Recommendations for choosing 1 music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of students are included.

Education Settings

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Eidson, C. Jr. (1989). The effect of behavioral Music Therapy on the generalization of interpersonal skills from sessions to the classroom by emotionally handicapped middle school students. Journal of Music Therapy, 26, 206-221.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a behavioral music therapy treatment program on student interpersonal behavior demonstrated in-group sessions and in classrooms.  Subjects included 25 middle school students with emotional handicaps, ages 11 to 16.  Three subject groups were compared: (a) subjects receiving music therapy structured to target selected behaviors, (b) subjects receiving general music therapy, and (c) subjects in a no contact control classroom.  A changing criterion design was developed based on the selected behavior taught, monitored, and reinforced.  A token economy system was established to reinforce students for demonstrating that week’s targeted behavior in the classroom and in music therapy sessions.  During each group’s final session, students used tokens to purchase preferred roles in a music video.  Experimental subject scores for classroom behavior were almost twice as stale as scores for control subjects.

Jellison, J. & Duke, R. (1994). The mental retardation label: Music teachers’ and prospective teachers’ expectations for children’s social and music behaviors. Journal of Music Therapy, 31, 166-185.

This study examined the effect of the label "mental retardation" on teachers' and prospective teachers' expectations for children entering their music classrooms. 336 students (university music education majors, elementary education majors, and elementary school music teachers) were presented with a situation in which they, as teachers, were permitted to admit or not admit students to their music class based on students' music and social skills. The students rated 25 music and 25 social behaviors that they considered important for students to have learned before being admitted to class. Both behaviors were considered more important prerequisites for the nonlabeled student than for the student with retardation. In general, the students rated social behaviors as more important for a new student to have learned, irrespective of whether the student was labeled as retarded.

Krout, R. & Mason M. (1988). Using computer and electronic music resources in clinical Music Therapy with Behaviorally Disordered Students, 12 to 18 years old.  Music Therapy Perspectives, 5, 114-118.

This study describes the clinical uses of a computer/software system, a digital electronic synthesizer, and a digital electronic rhythm composer in a music therapy program for 12-28 year old students with behavioral disorders. Students were served in 2 kinds of classrooms, self-contained and integrated. Two music specialists were employed in the school, and students had the option of enrolling in a music elective class that met 3 times a week or of receiving individual music therapy services that focused on learning an instrument. In both programs, emphasis was placed on targeted social behaviors or skills while concurrently learning about music. An example of a session with a 15-yr-old student learning to play the keyboard is included.

Kraut, Robert, ME, RMT-BC. Music Therapy in Special Education/MMB Horizon Series
Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: ML3920.K74

This book describes the use of music therapy to develop and maintain social skills necessary for mainstreaming special education students. The book includes: 1. A rationale for such an approach to social skills training, 2. Goals used to guide the music therapist through a series of steps and considerations involved in planning a comprehensive social skills program in a special education setting. 3. A description of an assessment of patient, 4. An explanation of targeting skills in terms of desired levels of future performance, 5. An explanation to implantation of skills achieved to the environment of mainstreamed children and 6. An evaluation of the program.

Emotional Problems

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Eidson, C. Jr. (1989). The effect of behavioral Music Therapy on the generalization of interpersonal skills from sessions to the classroom by emotionally handicapped middle school students. Journal of Music Therapy, 26, 206-221.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a behavioral music therapy treatment program on student interpersonal behavior demonstrated in-group sessions and in classrooms.  Subjects included 25 middle school students with emotional handicaps, ages 11 to 16.  Three subject groups were compared: (a) subjects receiving music therapy structured to target selected behaviors, (b) subjects receiving general music therapy, and (c) subjects in a no contact control classroom.  A changing criterion design was developed based on the selected behavior taught, monitored, and reinforced.  A token economy system was established to reinforce students for demonstrating that week’s targeted behavior in the classroom and in music therapy sessions.  During each group’s final session, students used tokens to purchase preferred roles in a music video.  Experimental subject scores for classroom behavior were almost twice as stale as scores for control subjects.

Watson Paul, Darlene. Music Therapy for Handicapped Children, Emotionally Disturbed. National Association for Music Therapy Inc. Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: ML3920.P3.

The section "Socially Maladjusted Adolescents" describes socially maladjusted adolescents as adolescents with the inability to adapt to or cope with people and situations in the environment of daily living. This section gives characteristics and descriptions of the socially maladjusted adolescent such as: 1.Juvenile Delinquency, 2. Broken homes, 3. Substance abuse, 4.Insecurity, and 5.Depression. This section gives two case studies of socially maladjusted adolescents and describes why music therapy can be effective with socially maladjusted adolescents.

Merle-Fishman, Carol R. (1982) Musical Behaviors and Preferences in Emotionally Disturbed and Normal Children. Journal of Music Therapy, 2, 1. Location: Bound Journals

This journal entry describes clinical uses of music in the treatment of emotionally disturbed children. The entry discusses research conducted with 16 children ranging from 7-10 years of age who are divided into two groups: emotionally disturbed and normal. Instrumental use, rhythmic behavior, and social interaction were recorded and differentiated between disturbed and normal children. Instrumental use remained at the same level between the normal and emotionally disturbed children. Rhythmic behavior was used evenly among the normal children and the more compulsive of the disturbed children. Social interaction was more common among the normal children than the disturbed children.

Gibbons, Alicia. (1983) Rhythm Responses in Emotionally Disturbed Children with Differing Needs for External Structure. Journal of Music Therapy, 94-102. Location: Bound Journals.

This journal entry discusses a study that was designed to determine whether 24 emotionally disturbed children with varying needs for external structure to control behavior had differing success rates on a rhythmic imitation task. The preliminary implication is that rhythm may be an important and useful element to consider in assessment, evaluation and development of subsequent music therapy plans for emotionally disturbed children in this age range. Judges viewed videotapes to determine whether subjects correctly imitated Congo drum rhythm patterns which had been presented in audiotape.

Harbert, Wilhelmina.(1956) Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children in a Music Therapy Clinic. Journal of Music Therapy, National Association for Music Therapy Inc.
Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: RC489.M7.

This journal entry describes the structure of a program for music therapy experiences and the specific criteria that have been found to be the most productive. This entry describes 9 different children with problems ranging from blindness to mental retardation to deafness and provides pictures of these children in the music therapy clinic.

Crocker, Dorothy. (1957) Music as a Therapeutic Experience for the Emotionally Disturbed Child.  Journal of Music Therapy, National Association for Music Therapy Inc.
Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: RC489.M7.

One section in this book describes a specific use of music as a non-threatening, non-verbal, but interactive communication. This section describes two cases of emotionally disturbed children and how music therapy was used to help them.

Hammer, S. E. (1996). The effects of Guided Imagery through music on state and trait anxiety. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 47-70

This study examined the effects of Guided Imagery through Music<GIM> and relaxation techniques on state and trait anxiety level. The result indicated that the experimental group experienced a decrease in perceived situational stress. The differences in state scores between groups were statistically significant. It suggests that GIM, as a stress management training program, may have an effect in changing state level anxiety for some individuals experiencing both chronic and acute stress. There are also indications that this type of program may have an overall effect on improving one’s ability to react to stress, improving concentration and general contentment, and improving one’s ability to relax in general.

General Information

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Taylor, Dale B. (1997) Biomedical Foundations of Music as Therapy. MMB Music, St. Louis, Missuori Page: 83.

A particular section in this book describes biomedical influences music may have on the effect of validating pathological thoughts and values. This section also describes certain active playing experiences that are effective. The affects of nonendogenous opiates on neurons is also discussed.

Stephens, G. (1981). Adele: A study in silence. Music Therapy, 1, 25-31.

This article describes Adele, a bright young woman who married one year after graduating from college.  However, she regressed to the level of an infant within a few years. She has schizophrenia: catatonic type. There had been a trauma. Music therapy helped her begin to communicate and express herself. This therapy included three paths over thirteen months. One song in the therapy had a significant effect on her. It included repetition, simple words and her name. In the first path, the client played music in relation to the therapist. In the second path the therapist used the guitar for its subtleties.

Geriatric Applications

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Herson, M., Van Hasselt, Vincent B., et al (1996).Psychological treatments of older adults.New York: Plenum Press.

The chapter entitled “Treatment in Residential Settings,” is written by Burgio, L.,Cotter, E. and Stevens, A. and comprises pages 36-40.This chapter provides an overview of the major forms of nonpharmacological therapies presently used to treat disruptive behaviors in geriatric residential settings.  The therapies outlined are discussed in terms of their defining characteristics and applicability to various behavioral problems. A music therapist could take these resources to apply known methods of music therapy to the problem areas.Also, the outlined therapies may spur further ideas of how to implement music therapy as an effective addition to the present treatments.

Smith, D. (1990).Therapeutic treatment effectiveness as documented in the gerontology literature: Implications for Music Therapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 8, 36-40.

A review of gerontological literature was conducted to (1) identify treatment interventions (TIs) being used with elderly populations, (2) determine the extent of documentation that exists for these TIs, and (3) evaluate effectiveness of TIs supported by the documentation. Three TIs had sufficient documentation for evaluation. Reality orientation and reminiscence have not been documented as effective due to lack of agreement between operational definitions, underlying assumptions, and overall function. Behavioral interventions were found to be effective in positively changing the more common behavioral problems (e.g., disorientation, age-related changes in social activity, sleep disturbances) encountered in institutionalized elderly persons. Findings support increased use of behavioral techniques within music therapy treatment programs for this population.

Segal, R. (1990).Helping older mentally retarded persons expand their socialization skills through the use of expressive therapies.Activities, adaptation and aging, 15, 99-109.

This resource discusses how the expressive therapies, which utilize music, art, and creative movement, can be an effective treatment intervention with elderly persons with mental retardation.These therapies help them to expand their socialization and communication skills, thereby reducing problems of social isolation and withdrawal. These therapies are designed to encourage participants to interact purposefully with others, assist them in expressing and communicating their feelings and ideas, and stimulate their cognitive processes and thereby sharpen their problem-solving skills. Additional goals center on sensory and muscular stimulation and gross and fine motor skill development. Exercises for each of these therapy areas are described.

Segal, R. (1990).Helping older mentally retarded persons expand their socialization skills through the use of expressive therapies.Activities, adaptation and aging, 15, 99-109.

This resource discusses how the expressive therapies, which utilize music, art, and creative movement, can be an effective treatment intervention with elderly persons with mental retardation.These therapies help them to expand their socialization and communication skills, thereby reducing problems of social isolation and withdrawal. These therapies are designed to encourage participants to interact purposefully with others, assist them in expressing and communicating their feelings and ideas, and stimulate their cognitive processes and thereby sharpen their problem-solving skills. Additional goals center on sensory and muscular stimulation and gross and fine motor skill development. Exercises for each of these therapy areas are described.

Brotons, M. & Pickett, P. K. (1996). The effects of Music Therapy Intervention on agitation behaviors of Alzheimer’s Disease patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 2-18.

This study examined the effects of music therapy on agitation behavior of Alzheimer’s Disease patients during and after Music Therapy intervention. Alzheimer’s disease refers to a progressive degenerative brain disease with an insidious onset.The second purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the effects of Music Therapy between those patients who had a musical background and those who did not.The third purpose was to see if there was a difference in the effects of music therapy between music therapists’ and caregivers’ post music therapy agitation scores. The results about hypotheses 1 and 2 show no effects with respect to music background, but identify significant main effects of agitation behavior. Subjects appeared significantly more agitated before music therapy than during either of the two music therapy observations and after music therapy sessions.The results for the third focus indicate no significant differences in agitation scores between music therapists and caregivers.

Hosipital and Institutional Settings

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Schwankovsky, Lenore M. (1982) Music Therapy for Handicapped Children, Other Health Impaired. National Association for Music Therapy Association Inc. Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: ML3920.S3

This book gives specific descriptions of handicapped or specific health disorders and explains how music therapy can be used to build cognitive skills, motor skills, communication skills, social skills, and emotional development. This book describes specific characteristics of Health Impaired Children and explores hospitalization and music therapy’s uses in the hospital setting. It provides a description of music therapy’s affects on issues involved with death and dying.

Murphy, Marcia. (1983). Music Therapy: A self -help group experience for substance abuse patients. Music Therapy,3, 52-62.

This paper examined the use of music therapy in a program for drug and alcohol abuse patients. Patients are engaged in an intensive treatment program including, psychotherapy, peer counseling self-help groups, individual counseling, vocational counseling, and other therapeutic groups including art, dance, music and occupational therapies. The goals are that the patients be physiologically drug free; being engaged in groups for therapy and for confrontation of issues that can be explored verbally and nonverbally, and remaining engaged through aftercare. The “Breakthrough” happened for many patients through involvement in the “here and now” music therapy. When a patient develops understanding of experiences of self-actualization, he is able to replicate that experience as he re-enters his world. This “Breakthrough” Concepts program can be used to expand the aftercare program in the hospital.

Euper, J. (1969). Recent trends in the care of chronic patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 6, 38-40.

The most recent trends in mental health work are toward preventing the occurrence of chronic mental illness. One of the most important aspects is to refuse to believe that the patient is incurable. This article mentions that music therapists have an opportunity for intensive therapy in the hospital as well as in aftercare in the community situation.

Schwankovsky, Lenore M. (1982) Music Therapy for Handicapped Children, Other Health Impaired. National Association for Music Therapy Association Inc. Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: ML3920.S3

Health Disorders
This book gives specific descriptions of handicaps or specific health disorders and explains how music therapy can be used to build cognitive skills, motor skills, communication skills, social skills, and emotional development. This book describes specific characteristics of Health Impaired Children and explores hospitalization and music therapy’s uses in the hospital setting. It provides a description of music therapy’s effects on issues involved with death and dying.

Benenzon, Rollando O. (1982). Music Therapy in Child Psychosis. Charles C. Thomas Publishing Location-Main Stacks.
Call #: ML3920.B38130.

Child Psychosis
This article described a case study of a blind patient M, age seven, with serious personality disorders. M’s communication disappeared around seven years of age. Before any request, M said, "Finished" or "I don’t feel like it". When any of his schoolmates came up to him to play, he said "good-bye". Due to his disorders and the impossibility of adapting to the institutional environment, M could not continue his studies. Because M liked music and had such a serious communication problem, music therapy was suggested as a first possibility and approach to the learning process.

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

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Segal, R. (1990). Helping older mentally retarded persons expand their socialization skills through the use of expressive therapies. Activities, adaptation and aging, 15, 99-109.

This resource discusses how the expressive therapies, which utilize music, art, and creative movement, can be an effective treatment intervention with elderly persons with mental retardation. These therapies help them to expand their socialization and communication skills, thereby reducing problems of social isolation and withdrawal. These therapies are designed to encourage participants to interact purposefully with others, assist them in expressing and communicating their feelings and ideas, and stimulate their cognitive processes and thereby sharpen their problem-solving skills. Additional goals center on sensory and muscular stimulation and gross and fine motor skill development. Exercises for each of these therapy areas are described.



Jellison, J. & Duke, R. (1994). The mental retardation label: Music teachers’ and prospective teachers’ expectations for children’s social and music behaviors. Journal of Music Therapy, 31, 166-185.


This study examined the effect of the label "mental retardation" on teachers' and prospective teachers' expectations for children entering their music classrooms. 336 students (university music education majors, elementary education majors, and elementary school music teachers) were presented with a situation in which they, as teachers, were permitted to admit or not admit students to their music class based on students' music and social skills. The students rated 25 music and 25 social behaviors that they considered important for students to have learned before being admitted to class. Both behaviors were considered more important prerequisites for the nonlabeled student than for the student with retardation. In general, the students rated social behaviors as more important for a new student to have learned, irrespective of whether the student was labeled as retarded.

Modifying Social Behaviors of Mentally Retarded Children in Music Activities. (1970) Journal of Music Therapy, 7, 83
Location: Microfilm

This journal entry discusses how the retarded child must develop certain social skills in order to function appropriately in his/her environment. This study describes the modification of anti-social and inappropriate behavior in 4 moderately retarded children. The article describes behavior to be modified as: hitting, yelling, pushing and non-participation. Children in the study sang the Hokey-Pokey while having different children in the group take turns to serve as the leader. One child served as the leader using a maraca or a shaker, and the other children imitated what the leader did.

Wasserman, N., Plutchik, R., Deutsch, R., & Taketomo, Y. (1973). A music therapy evaluation scale and its clinical application to mentally retarded adult patients.
Journal of Music Therapy, 64-77.

This article describes a study that examined assessment of musical aptitudes and social behavior in people with mental retardation and emotional illness. Three evaluation scales are recommended. These are: (1) Sample many different types of musical skills, (2) Do not require any special records or equipment, and (3) Use any type of music in group or class. These scales assessed both spoken and sung sounds and assessed discrimination of vocal and instrumental pitch, tempo, dynamics and rhythms. Improved social behaviors included the patients’ willingness to take part in the music activities, the quality of participation, assumption of the role of group leader, and acceptance of responsibility.

Music Styles

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Gowensmith, W. N. & Bloom, L. J. (1997). The effects of heavy metal music on arousal and anger. Journal of Music Therapy, 33-45.

This study incorporated an experimental design to utilize individual differences of subjects such as a moderating variable in determining the effect of heavy metal music on listeners’ self-reported levels of arousal and anger. In this study it was observed that college-enrolled heavy metal fans were not angrier or more aroused than were college-enrolled country music fans after listening to heavy metal music. It does not seem that musical presentation can be solely responsible for differences in anger levels. In short the effects of heavy metal music are mediated by subjects’ individual differences. Examination of the effects of heavy metal music should consider individual factors, including the musical preferences and personal histories of the listeners.

Worden, M. C. (1998). The effect of music on differences in body movement of college music majors, dance majors, and survivors of sexual abuse. Journal of Music Therapy, 4, 259-273.

This study examined whether there would be differences between the mannerisms and body language of three groups of subjects: 1.music majors, 2.dance majors, and 3.victims of sexual abuse. Each of the subjects moved to a variety of music selected individually in the treatment room. Results revealed statistically significant differences in the interaction of subjects and music. The sexual trauma group and the music students were much less inhibited moving to the orchestral music than to reggae or jazz. The dance students felt more relaxed with jazz.

Stratton, V. N., Zalanowski, A. H (1997). The relationship between characteristic moods and most commonly listened to types of music. Journal of Music Therapy, 129-140.

This article describes how music works to elicit characteristic moods and what types of music work best. The samples included college students, college faculty and staff and a random sample of non-college related adults. The results revealed that music listening is more related to mood among younger and more educated individuals. This study indicates a person’s perception of musical exposure may be just as relevant as actual exposure.

Physiological

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Taylor, Dale (1997). Biomedical foundations of music as therapy. St. Louis, MO: MMB Music Inc. UWEC Call#: ML3920 .T31 1997

This book describes in detail the biological explanation of how music works on the brain. It helps one to understand further why music is such a powerful mode of therapy, and it explains exactly how music does what it does. The insights gleaned from reading the book may help one to implement music more effectively in treating anti-social and/or withdrawn types of behavior, as the physiological aspect of music becomes more clear.

Gourgey, C. (1998). Music Therapy in the treatment of social isolation in visually impaired children. RE: View, 29, 157-162.

This resource discusses music therapy in the treatment of children with significant visual impairments. Observations strongly suggest a pattern of social isolation and withdrawal related to the visual disability. This pattern may be understood as a continuum: at the high end the child possesses a full capacity for relatedness to others but tends to be alone and withdrawn; in the most severe case, the child may appear to be autistic. Modification of blindisms and socialization in music therapy can address problems of social isolation on many levels. Music evokes deep responses without depending on words; therefore, music therapy can reach children with even the most severe disabilities.

Heal, M. & Wigram, T. (1993). Music Therapy in Health and Education. London: J. Kingsley.
UW-Madison Call #: ML3920 M8979 1993

Chapter 18 (208-213), written by Jeff Hooper, is entitled “Developing Interaction Through Shared Musical Experiences: A Strategy to Enhance and Validate the Descriptive Approach.” This chapter presents a case study about Elizabeth, a 27-year-old woman with microcephaly, myopia, and spastic quadriplegia. It investigates her response to 5 music therapy sessions and 5 control sessions.  It also suggests that while Elizabeth will respond to the increase in individual attention offered by the control conditions, music therapy exerts a greater influence over [her withdrawn] behavior.

Hillman Boxill, Edith, C.M.T. (1985) Music Therapy for the Developmentally Disabled. Aspen Productions. Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: ML3920.B59.

Music Therapy for the Developmentally Disabled presents an innovative approach to music therapy for persons with five categories of developmental disabilities: mental retardation, Autism Spectrum Disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and other neurological impairments. A developmentally disabled person is described as having failed to gain: 1. motor skills, 2. adaptive skills, 3.communication skills, 4. cognitive skills and 5. social skills. The book describes music therapy as the primary treatment method, provides examples of assessment and treatment planning, and outlines the organization of a music therapy program.

Harbert, Wilhelmina.(1956) Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children in a Music Therapy Clinic. Journal of Music Therapy, National Association for Music Therapy Inc.
Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: RC489.M7.

This journal entry describes the structure of a program for music therapy experiences and the specific criteria that have been found to be the most productive. This entry describes 9 different children with problems ranging from blindness to mental retardation to deafness and provides pictures of these children in the music therapy clinic.

Schnur Ritholz, M. & Turry, A. (1994). The journey by train: Creative Music Therapy with a 17-year-old boy. Journal of Music Therapy, 12, 58-87.

This study describes one year of treatment for a 17- year old boy who has numerous developmental delays, as well as emotional handicaps triggered by, among other things, sexual abuse. He brought fantasy into the music therapy session, adapting ideas from his make-believe world to include some elements in his life. This involvement moved him from a position of rigidity and isolation to one of creative engagement with others. While his disabilities led him to adapting a rigid stance in life - being stuck, in a sense, in physical time - his ability to grow and live in emotional and creative time in music was a great gain.

Social Interaction

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Modifying Social Behaviors of Mentally Retarded Children in Music Activities. (1970) Journal of Music Therapy, 7, 83
Location: Microfilm

This journal entry discusses how the retarded child must develop certain social skills in order to function appropriately in his/her environment. This study describes the modification of anti-social and inappropriate behavior in 4 moderately retarded children. The article describes behavior to be modified as: hitting, yelling, pushing and non-participation. Children in the study sang the Hokey-Pokey while having different children in the group take turns to serve as the leader. One child served as the leader using a maraca or a shaker, and the other children imitated what the leader did.

Segal, R. (1990). Helping older mentally retarded persons expand their socialization skills through the use of expressive therapies. Activities, adaptation and aging, 15, 99-109.

This resource discusses how the expressive therapies, which utilize music, art, and creative movement, can be an effective treatment intervention with elderly persons with mental retardation. These therapies help them to expand their socialization and communication skills, thereby reducing problems of social isolation and withdrawal. These therapies are designed to encourage participants to interact purposefully with others, assist them in expressing and communicating their feelings and ideas, and stimulate their cognitive processes and thereby sharpen their problem-solving skills. Additional goals center on sensory and muscular stimulation and gross and fine motor skill development. Exercises for each of these therapy areas are described.

Crocker, Dorothy. (1957) Music as a Therapeutic Experience for the Emotionally Disturbed Child. Journal of Music Therapy, National Association for Music Therapy Inc.
Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: RC489.M7.

One section in this book describes a specific use of music as a non-threatening, non-verbal, but interactive communication. This section describes two cases of emotionally disturbed children and how music therapy was used to help them.

Pollack, N. J. & Namazi, K. H. (1992).The effect of music participation on the social behavior of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 54-67.

This article reviews the relationship between music participation and social behavior in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Three male and five female patients who ranged in age from 67 years old to 85 years old were treated individually in six 20 minute sessions over a period of 2 weeks. The results included positive responses such as smiling, increase in eye contact and verbal feedback. Individualized music activity with Alzheimer’s patients may facilitate these responses.

Eidson, C. Jr. (1989). The effect of behavioral Music Therapy on the generalization of interpersonal skills from sessions to the classroom by emotionally handicapped middle school students. Journal of Music Therapy, 26, 206-221.

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a behavioral music therapy treatment program on student interpersonal behavior demonstrated in-group sessions and in classrooms.  Subjects included 25 middle school students with emotional handicaps, ages 11 to 16.  Three subject groups were compared: (a) subjects receiving music therapy structured to target selected behaviors, (b) subjects receiving general music therapy, and (c) subjects in a no contact control classroom.  A changing criterion design was developed based on the selected behavior taught, monitored, and reinforced.  A token economy system was established to reinforce students for demonstrating that week’s targeted behavior in the classroom and in music therapy sessions.  During each group’s final session, students used tokens to purchase preferred roles in a music video.  Experimental subject scores for classroom behavior were almost twice as stale as scores for control subjects.

Gourgey, C. (1998). Music Therapy in the treatment of social isolation in visually impaired children.  RE: View, 29, 157-162.

This resource discusses music therapy in the treatment of children with significant visual impairments. Observations strongly suggest a pattern of social isolation and withdrawal related to the visual disability. This pattern may be understood as a continuum: at the high end the child possesses a full capacity for relatedness to others but tends to be alone and withdrawn; in the most severe case, the child may appear to be autistic. Modification of blindisms and socialization in music therapy can address problems of social isolation on many levels. Music evokes deep responses without depending on words; therefore, music therapy can reach children with even the most severe disabilities.

Cistrunk, M., Makuch, R., Stevens, E., Tally, J. (Dec. 12, 1967). Some Effects of Music on Verbal Interaction in Groups. Publisher: Journal of Music Therapy p.61.
Location: Microfilm.

This article states that man’s need for social contact is basic and his personality is formed and nurtured through his social interaction with others. This entry found that, when verbal interactions within a group were stifled, states of tension and conflict could arise. In such situations as these, music as a means of non-verbal communication may lead to verbal interactions in a group.

Specific Types

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Saperston, B. (1989). Music based individualized relaxation raining (MBIRT): A stress reduction approach for the behaviorally disturbed mentally retarded. Music Therapy Perspectives, 6, 26-33.

This article provides an overview of MBIRT, a stress-reduction approach developed for persons with behavioral disturbances or mental retardation. Theoretical constructs on which MBIRT procedures are based are presented, and intervention and assessment procedures are described. Music is used in MBIRT to circumvent learning and behavioral problems and functions as a reinforcing stimulus, a structural prompt, and an eliciting stimulus. Assumptions for presenting music as a stimulus for more relaxed responding are presented. Also described are 4 levels of MBIRT intervention strategies, MBIRT assessment procedures, and a case study.

Segal, R. (1990). Helping older mentally retarded persons expand their socialization skills through the use of expressive therapies. Activities, adaptation and aging, 15, 99-109.

This resource discusses how the expressive therapies, which utilize music, art, and creative movement, can be an effective treatment intervention with elderly persons with mental retardation. These therapies help them to expand their socialization and communication skills, thereby reducing problems of social isolation and withdrawal. These therapies are designed to encourage participants to interact purposefully with others, assist them in expressing and communicating their feelings and ideas, and stimulate their cognitive processes and thereby sharpen their problem-solving skills. Additional goals center on sensory and muscular stimulation and gross and fine motor skill development. Exercises for each of these therapy areas are described.

Krout, R. & Mason M. (1988). Using computer and electronic music resources in clinical Music Therapy with Behaviorally Disordered Students, 12 to 18 years old. Music Therapy Perspectives, 5, 114-118.

This study describes the clinical uses of a computer/software system, a digital electronic synthesizer, and a digital electronic rhythm composer in a music therapy program for 12-28 year old students with behavioral disorders. Students were served in 2 kinds of classrooms, self-contained and integrated. Two music specialists were employed in the school, and students had the option of enrolling in a music elective class that met 3 times a week or of receiving individual music therapy services that focused on learning an instrument. In both programs, emphasis was placed on targeted social behaviors or skills while concurrently learning about music. An example of a session with a 15-yr-old student learning to play the keyboard is included.

Plach, Tom, R.M.T. (1980) Creative Use of Music in Group Therapy. Charles C. Thomas Publishing, Springfield, Ill.
Location: Main Stacks.
Call #: RC488.P59.

A section in this book gives specific guidelines to follow for group music therapy sessions and describes ways to increase social interaction within the group. The section discusses the development of group stages through music and the effect of music combined with additional expressive media such as art, dance, writing and drama. The section describes and discusses the four categories of recreational music groups as: development of constructive socialization skills, play therapy, coping skills for competition, and the constructive use of leisure time.

Hammer, S. E. (1996). The effects of Guided Imagery through music on state and trait anxiety. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 47-70

This study examined the effects of Guided Imagery through Music (GIM) and relaxation techniques on state and trait anxiety level. The result indicated that the experimental group experienced a decrease in perceived situational stress. The differences in state scores between groups were statistically significant. It suggests that GIM, as a stress management training program, may have an effect in changing state level anxiety for some individuals experiencing both chronic and acute stress. There are also indications that this type of program may have an overall effect on improving one’s ability to react to stress, improving concentration and general contentment, and improving one’s ability to relax in general.

Grossman, S. (1978). An investigation of Crocker’s Music Projective Technique for emotionally disturbed children. Journal of Music Therapy, 15, 179-184.

The purpose of this study was to explore further the technique outlined by Crocker. In this approach emotionally disturbed children told related stories to different musical stimuli. In this study twelve emotionally disturbed and abused children served as subjects over four months. Results showed that there were significant differences attributable to sex and diagnosis within and between the diagnostic group by doing the IPAT test. The songs for this project were designed to elicit either a happy or sad response. The majority of the stories matched the subjective mood of the song. From this study, it would seem that certain aspects regarding the use of music as a projective technique seem to be substantiated.