A-Z List


Alzheimer's Disease

Internet Articles

Compiled by Rachel Tembreull, Katie Solberg, Julia Bonack, Shelly Berg, Cheryle Busch, Jessie Marx, and K.Kimminau

Database by Jeffrey Miller - 2000

Click on the links below to obtain topic-related information on this population


Caregivers

Top

Internet Address: http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/as22.html

"Understanding and Respecting a Person with Dementia"

Each person with dementia is a unique person who is affected in a different way. The caregiver must make the patient feel independent and not be too controlling. Another good thing to remember is that religious and cultural details are very important in the life of a dementia patient. The focus must also be on giving the patient praise and compliments. Knowing that each patient is different and realizing this will help music therapists use a variety of approaches to elicit responses toward their goals.




Communication, Language Skills, and Verbalization

Top

Internet Address: http://www.maltedmedia.com/books/papers/s6-compo.html

This site discusses the proposal of a new branch development of diagnosis and offers music therapy as a replacement for lost language. Music will be used to assess type and depth of loss, the progression of loss in disease, and as a prognostic indicator following injury. It also discusses approaches and uses of music for patients with dementia.

Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org/crespec/CS-94.HTML

Carter, John. "Songs as a way of reaching a patient with Alzheimer's".

This site summarizes an article in the Wall Street Journal in which John Carter observed that his mother's memory seemed to be gone, but she could still remember music. She couldn't even remember her own son's name, but she could sing songs from memory. Mother and son could still communicate through music.

Internet Address: http://www.caregiver.org/factsheets/alxheimers.html or www.noah.cuny.edu/aging/uschc/alzheimershml#

Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease which affects changes in nerve cells in the brain and eventually causes death. It affects memory, concentration, speech, and physical coordination. Alzheimer’s is also called the "family disease" because families often will provide full time care for their relatives with this disease. It is important for a music therapist to know the areas that need to be dealt with concerning an Alzheimer’s patient and to also remember that the family is part of these areas.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk

"About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal"

Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Cooperation and Attention

Top

Internet Address: http://www.caregiver.org/factsheets/alxheimers.html or http://www.noah.cuny.edu/aging/uschc/alzheimershml#

Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease which affects changes in nerve cells in the brain and eventually causes death. It affects memory, concentration, speech, and physical coordination. Alzheimer’s is also called the "family disease" because families often will provide full time care for their relatives with this disease. It is important for a music therapist to know the areas that need to be dealt with concerning an Alzheimer’s patient and to also remember that the family is part of these areas.


Emotions and Emotional Expression

Top

Internet Address: http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manuel/Lentz-A.html

Lentz, Amy. "Supplemental Treatment Techniques for the Patient with Dementia."

This article states that music is an important environmental variable for patients with dementia. Music provides stimulation on the primitive and emotional levels of even the most impaired patient. Two case studies by Norberg et.al (1986) found that music can prevent bedridden patients from withdrawing psychologically.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk/

"About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal"

Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Memory, Reminiscence, and Word Recall

Top

Internet Address: http://www.alznsw.asn.au/library/demmang.htm#home

"Dementia Management Principles."

This site provides general information about dementia. The information in this article can be applied when using music as therapy for enjoyment, memory recall, and in other therapeutic arenas.

Internet Address: http://users.erols.com/library/Melodic_Medication.txt

"Melodic Medication." McDonnell, S.

This article surveys a wide range of issues, from pain in adults and children to memory recall in Alzheimer’s patients. It reveals that studies show greater recall with music than with verbal cues alone.

Internet Address: http://www.erols.com/leopold/Melodic_Medication.txt

McDonnel, Sharon. "Melodic Interventions."

This article discusses how music has the ability to help patients suffering from pain or patients who have poor memory. A study at Beth Israel Hospital shows that music can serve as well as or better than sedation to relieve pain. Music helped evoke long forgotten memories of 40 Alzheimer and dementia patients in the study by Beth Abraham Health Services.

Internet Address: http://www.caregiver.on.ca/cgihidmmt.html

"Music Therapy for Parkinson’s and Dementia".

Music can be used with Alzheimer’s Disease Patients to retrieve memory. Music therapy with dementia patients also helps with relaxation.

Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org /crespec/CS-94.HTML

Carter, John. "Songs as a way of reaching a patient with Alzheimer's".

This site summarizes an article in the Wall Street Journal in which John Carter observed that his mother's memory seemed to be gone, but she could still remember music. She couldn't even remember her own son's name, but she could sing songs from memory. Mother and son could still communicate through music.

Internet Address: http://www.alz.org/facts/rtprogrs.htm

"Alzheimer's Association".

This site contains many facts about what Alzheimer's disease involves. It would provide a therapist with background knowledge. One particular section describes how Alzheimer's progresses. It affects different people in different ways. It is hard for doctors to predict what will happen next. Short-term memory is usually affected first, followed by other intellectual and physical functions.

Internet Address: http://www.noah.cuny.edu/aging/uschc/alzheimershml# or http://www.caregiver.org /factsheets/alxheimers.html

Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease which affects changes in nerve cells in the brain and eventually causes death. It affects memory, concentration, speech, and physical coordination. Alzheimer’s is also called the "family disease" because families often will provide full time care for their relatives with this disease. It is important for a music therapist to know the areas that need to be dealt with concerning an Alzheimer’s patient and to also remember that the family is part of these areas.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk

"About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal"

Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Dancing and Movement

Top

Internet Address: http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/altther_110297.html

Melinda Bargree. "Scientists and therapists now agree music heals--and not just the spirit".

Music’s effect on the mind goes further than touching our moods. This concept is not new to music therapists. Therapists have previously been found to link music for therapeutic uses with patients. For example, an Alzheimer’s patient who has been unresponsive for years may hear ballroom music and suddenly dance. The article actively promotes music therapy. It concludes with a speech by Barbara Dunn.

Internet Address: http://www.agsmith.com/mt.htm

"Music Therapy".

Alzheimer's is a neurological disorder. Dr. Oliver Sacks in Awakenings said that he considered music therapy a tool of great power. It helps many neurological disorders like Alzheimer's. He found that Alzheimer's patients who could not talk or move would sing or dance to music. Music can organize or reorganize a cerebral function that has been damaged.

Internet Address: http://neuro-www.mgh.harvard.edu /neurowebform /Alzheimers Disease Articles

"Using Music Therapy of Sorts."

This site describes a case study in which a certified personal trainer finds one of her client's mothers has Alzheimer’s disease and begins to use dance techniques with her.


Singing

Top

Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org/crespec/CS-94.HTML

Carter, John. "Songs as a way of reaching a patient with Alzheimer's."

This site summarizes an article in the Wall Street Journal in which John Carter observed that his mother's memory seemed to be gone, but she could still remember music. She couldn't even remember her own son's name, but she could sing songs from memory. Mother and son could still communicate through music.

Internet Address: http://www.agsmith.com/mt.htm

"Music Therapy."

Alzheimer's is a neurological disorder. Dr. Oliver Sacks in Awakenings said that he considered music therapy a tool of great power. It helps many neurological disorders like Alzheimer's. He found that Alzheimer's patients who could not talk or move would sing or dance to music. Music can organize or reorganize a cerebral function that has been damaged.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk/

About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal." Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Rhythm Exercises and Movement

Top

Internet Address: http://www.healthysounds.com/feature5.html.

"Rhythm For Life Completes Comprehensive Alzheimer’s Research Project".

This study describes rhythm playing characteristics of people with Alzheimer type dementia who receive institutional care. The study looked at abilities that included playing in time with others, learning rhythm patterns, and increasing duration of playing time. The results concluded that people with dementia are able to participate successfully in rhythm-based activities.

Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org/1993/1993-199.HTML

Knights, Roger. "Drum Circles for the Elderly."

This article describes an organization, Rhythm for Life. They seek to develop the use of rhythm as an alternative therapy. Drum circles for the elderly can reduce feelings of isolation and loneliness that is often felt.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk

About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal." Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Background Music and Listening Exercises

Top

Internet Address: http://www.mediconsult.com/mc/mcsite.nsf/condition/alzheimers~journal+articles~GYCG-47UT6D

"Influence of Dinner Music on Food Intake and Symptoms Common in Dementia." Ragneskog H., Brane G., Karlsson I., Kihlgren M. This article examined the effect of music on the food intake of 25 patients in a nursing home. First, the patients ate with no music of any type during their mealtime. Next, there was soothing music played while they ate. After that, folk songs likely to be known to the patients were used. Finally, contemporary pop music was played. The soothing music, followed by the pop music, showed the greatest effect on the food intake, as well as on the overall mood of the patients.


Instruments

Top

Internet Address: http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/journals/archives/neuro/vol_54/no_12/letter_1h.tml.

Rosenberg, Roger N. MD., ed. "Autopsy-Proven Alzheimer’s Disease in a Patient With Dementia Who Retained Musical Skill in Life".

This article discusses a documented case of the first autopsy-proven Alzheimer’s Disease patient with preserved cognitive skill. The patient was able to independently play a musical instrument while needing assistance with other cognitive activities.


Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org/1993/1993-199.HTM

Knights, Roger. "Drum Circles for the Elderly."

This article describes an organization, Rhythm for Life. They seek to develop the use of rhythm as an alternative therapy. Drum circles for the elderly can reduce feelings of isolation and loneliness that is often felt.


Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk

About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal." Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Familiar songs

Top

Internet Address: http://www.njit.edu/njIT/News/Releases/Memlane/html

"A Musical Memory Lane Creates Engaging Activity for Alzheimer’s Patients."

Familiar musical hits can boost the enhancement of Alzheimer’s Disease clients. The study focuses on the device Musical Memory Lane TM, which helps involve Alzheimer’s patients in daycare settings.


Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk

"About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal." Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Folk tunes

Top

Internet Address: http://www.mediconsult.com/mc/mcsite.nsf/condition/alzheimers~journal+articles~GYCG-47UT6D

"Influence of Dinner Music on Food Intake and Symptoms Common in Dementia." Ragneskog H., Brane G., Karlsson I., Kihlgren M. This article examined the effect of music on the food intake of 25 patients in a nursing home. First, the patients ate with no music of any type during their mealtime. Next, there was soothing music played while they ate. After that, folk songs likely to be known to the patients were used. Finally, contemporary pop music was played. The soothing music, followed by the pop music, showed the greatest effect on the food intake, as well as on the overall mood of the patients.


Soothing and sedative music

Top

Internet Address: http://www.mediconsult.com/mc/mcsite.nsf/condition/alzheimers~journal+articles~GYCG-47UT6D

"Influence of Dinner Music on Food Intake and Symptoms Common in Dementia." Ragneskog H., Brane G., Karlsson I., Kihlgren M. This article examined the effect of music on the food intake of 25 patients in a nursing home. First, the patients ate with no music of any type during their mealtime. Next, there was soothing music played while they ate. After that, folk songs likely to be known to the patients were used. Finally, contemporary pop music was played. The soothing music, followed by the pop music, showed the greatest effect on the food intake, as well as on the overall mood of the patients.


Contemporary pop music

Top

Internet Address: http://www.mediconsult.com/mc/mcsite.nsf/condition/alzheimers~journal+articles~GYCG-47UT6D

"Influence of Dinner Music on Food Intake and Symptoms Common in Dementia." Ragneskog H., Brane G., Karlsson I., Kihlgren M. This article examined the effect of music on the food intake of 25 patients in a nursing home. First, the patients ate with no music of any type during their mealtime. Next, there was soothing music played while they ate. After that, folk songs likely to be known to the patients were used. Finally, contemporary pop music was played. The soothing music, followed by the pop music, showed the greatest effect on the food intake, as well as on the overall mood of the patients.


Nursing Homes and Care Facilities

Top

Internet Address: http://www.mediconsult.com/mc/mcsite.nsf/condition/alzheimers~journal+articles~GYCG-47UT6D

"Influence of Dinner Music on Food Intake and Symptoms Common in Dementia." Ragneskog H., Brane G., Karlsson I., Kihlgren M.

This article examined the effect of music on the food intake of 25 patients in a nursing home. First, the patients ate with no music of any type during their mealtime. Next, there was soothing music played while they ate. After that, folk songs likely to be known to the patients were used. Finally, contemporary pop music was played. The soothing music, followed by the pop music, showed the greatest effect on the food intake, as well as on the overall mood of the patients.

Internet Address: http://www.healthysounds.com/feature5.html

"Rhythm For Life Completes Comprehensive Alzheimer’s Research Project".

This study describes rhythm playing characteristics of people with Alzheimer type dementia who receive institutional care. The study looked at abilities that included playing in time with others, learning rhythm patterns, and increasing duration of playing time. The results concluded that people with dementia are able to participate successfully in rhythm-based activities.

Internet Address: http://www.erols.com/leopold/Melodic_Medication.txt

McDonnel, Sharon. "Melodic Interventions."

This article discusses how music has the ability to help patients suffering from pain or patients who have poor memory. A study at Beth Israel Hospital shows that music can serve as well as or better than sedation to relieve pain. Music helped evoke long forgotten memories of 40 Alzheimer and dementia patients in the study by Beth Abraham Health Services.

Internet Address: http://www.njit.edu/njIT/News/Releases/Memlane/html

"A Musical Memory Lane Creates Engaging Activity for Alzheimer’s Patients."

Familiar musical hits can boost the enhancement of Alzheimer’s Disease clients. The study focuses on the device Musical Memory Lane TM, which helps involve Alzheimer’s patients in daycare settings.


Alzheimer’s Disease

Top

Internet Address: http://users.erols.com/library/Melodic_Medication.txt

"Melodic Medication." McDonnell, S. This article surveys a wide range of issues, from pain in adults and children to memory recall in Alzheimer’s patients. It reveals that studies show greater recall with music than with verbal cues alone.

Internet Address: http://fly.hiwaay.net:8000/~bparris/music.html.

"Midi Music for Alzheimer’s Patient and Caregiver"

This site provides choices of music that can be played and used in music therapy activities. Examples of music included are "Do You Remember?", "Always", "Bridge Over Troubled Waters", and many more.

Internet Address: http://www.healthysounds.com/feature5.html.

"Rhythm For Life Completes Comprehensive Alzheimer’s Research Project."

This study describes rhythm playing characteristics of people with Alzheimer type dementia who receive institutional care. The study looked at abilities that included playing in time with others, learning rhythm patterns, and increasing duration of playing time. The results concluded that people with dementia are able to participate successfully in rhythm-based activities.

Internet Address: http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/altther_110297.html

Melinda Bargree. "Scientists and therapists now agree music heals--and not just the spirit".

Music’s effect on the mind goes further than touching our moods. This concept is not new to music therapists. Therapists have previously been found to link music for therapeutic uses with patients. For example, an Alzheimer’s patient who has been unresponsive for years may hear ballroom music and suddenly dance. The article actively promotes music therapy. It concludes with a speech by Barbara Dunn.

Internet Address: http://www.ama-assn.org/sci pubs/journals/archives/neuro/vol_54/no_12/letter_1.html

Rosenberg, Roger N. MD., ed. "Autopsy-Proven Alzheimer’s Disease in a Patient With Dementia Who Retained Musical Skill in Life".

This article discusses a documented case of the first autopsy-proven Alzheimer’s Disease patient with preserved cognitive skill. The patient was able to independently play a musical instrument while needing assistance with other cognitive activities.


Internet Address: http://www.njit.edu/njIT/News/Releases/Memlane/html

"A Musical Memory Lane Creates Engaging Activity for Alzheimer’s Patients."

Familiar musical hits can boost the enhancement of Alzheimer’s Disease clients. The study focuses on the device Musical Memory Lane TM, which helps involve Alzheimer’s patients in daycare settings.

Internet Address: http://www.caregiver.on.ca/cgihidmmt.html

"Music Therapy for Parkinson’s and Dementia."

Music can be used with Alzheimer’s Disease Patients to retrieve memory. Music therapy with dementia patients also helps with relaxation.

Internet Address: http://www.bandwidth.net/yoda/Music.html

"The Power of Song".

Researchers are finding that music does more than just soothe the soul. Tims, who is the Chief of Music Therapy at Michigan State University, has worked with men who have Alzheimer's disease. He played them songs that matched their tastes. After six weeks blood tests were given, and the men's meletonin levels had risen 400% from those taken at baseline. Music has a positive effect on Alzheimer's patients.

Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org /crespec/CS-94.HTML

Carter, John. "Songs as a way of reaching a patient with Alzheimer's."

This site summarizes an article in the Wall Street Journal in which John Carter observed that his mother's memory seemed to be gone, but she could still remember music. She couldn't even remember her own son's name, but she could sing songs from memory. Mother and son could still communicate through music.

Internet Address: http://www.agsmith.com/mt.htm

"Music Therapy".

Alzheimer's is a neurological disorder. Dr. Oliver Sacks in Awakenings said that he considered music therapy a tool of great power. It helps many neurological disorders like Alzheimer's. He found that Alzheimer's patients who could not talk or move would sing or dance to music. Music can organize or reorganize a cerebral function that has been damaged.

Internet Address: http://www.alz.org /facts/rtprogrs.htm

"Alzheimer's Association".

This site contains many facts about what Alzheimer's disease involves. It would provide a therapist with background knowledge. One particular section describes how Alzheimer's progresses. It affects different people in different ways. It is hard for doctors to predict what will happen next. Short-term memory is usually affected first, followed by other intellectual and physical functions.

Internet Address: http://www.alzform.org /members/research/treatment.html.guide1music.html

Alzheimer’s Research Forum-Treatment Guide Music Therapy Goal: This resource contains a list of goals used in music therapy and describes the effects of aging on elderly adults. These goals can be used for music therapists to follow in their assessments of patients and their patients’ families.

Internet Address: www.noah.cuny.edu /aging/uschc/alzheimershml# OR
http://www.caregiver.org/factsheets/alxheimers.html

Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease which affects changes in nerve cells in the brain and eventually causes death. It affects memory, concentration, speech, and physical coordination. Alzheimer’s is also called the "family disease" because families often will provide full time care for their relatives with this disease. It is important for a music therapist to know the areas that need to be dealt with concerning an Alzheimer’s patient and to also remember that the family is part of these areas.

Internet Address: http://neuro-www.mgh.harvard.edu/neurowebform/

Alzheimers Disease Articles "Using Music Therapy of Sorts." This site describes a case study in which a certified personal trainer finds one of her client's mothers has Alzheimer’s disease and begins to use dance techniques with her.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk/

"About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal." Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."

Dementia

Top

Internet Address: http://www.mediconsult.com/mc/mcsite.nsf/condition/alzheimers~journal+articles~GYCG-47UT6D

"Influence of Dinner Music on Food Intake and Symptoms Common in Dementia." Ragneskog H., Brane G., Karlsson I., Kihlgren M. This article examined the effect of music on the food intake of 25 patients in a nursing home. First, the patients ate with no music of any type during their mealtime. Next, there was soothing music played while they ate. After that, folk songs likely to be known to the patients were used. Finally, contemporary pop music was played. The soothing music, followed by the pop music, showed the greatest effect on the food intake, as well as on the overall mood of the patients.

Internet Address: http://wkweb5.cableinet.co.uk/garyblatch/music.html

"The Use of Music Therapy with the Elderly Diagnosed with Dementia or Depression." Dunn, J. This site recommends using passive techniques to aid in relaxation and sleep, and using active techniques for enjoyment and socialization.

Internet Address: http://www.alznsw.asn.au/library/demmang.htm#home

"Dementia Management Principles." This site provides general information about dementia. The information in this article can be applied when using music as therapy for enjoyment, memory recall, and in other therapeutic arenas.

Internet Address: http://www.healthysounds.com/feature5.html

"Rhythm For Life Completes Comprehensive Alzheimer’s Research Project."

This study describes rhythm playing characteristics of people with Alzheimer type dementia who receive institutional care. The study looked at abilities that included playing in time with others, learning rhythm patterns, and increasing duration of playing time. The results concluded that people with dementia are able to participate successfully in rhythm-based activities.

Internet Address: http://www.maltedmedia.com/books/papers/s6-compo.html

Barbara Balch and Dennis Bathony-Kitsz. "Composing a new language."

This site discusses the proposal of a new branch development of diagnosis and offers music therapy as a replacement for lost language. Music will be used to asses type and depth of loss, the progression of loss in disease, and as a prognostic indicator following injury. It also discusses approaches and uses of music for patients with dementia.

Internet Address: http://www.erols.com/leopold/Melodic_Medication.txt

McDonnel, Sharon. "Melodic Interventions."

This article discusses how music has the ability to help patients suffering from pain or patients who have poor memory. A study at Beth Israel Hospital shows that music can serve as well as or better than sedation to relieve pain. Music helped evoke long forgotten memories of 40 Alzheimer and dementia patients in the study by Beth Abraham Health Services.

Internet Address: http://www.ama-assn.org/sci pubs/journals/archives/neuro/vol_54/no_12/letter_1.html

Rosenberg, Roger N. MD., ed. "Autopsy-Proven Alzheimer’s Disease in a Patient With Dementia Who Retained Musical Skill in Life".

This article discusses a documented case of the first autopsy-proven Alzheimer’s Disease patient with preserved cognitive skill. The patient was able to independently play a musical instrument while needing assistance with other cognitive activities.

Internet Address: http://www.caregiver.on.ca /cgihidmmt.html

"Music Therapy for Parkinson’s and Dementia".

Music can be used with Alzheimer’s Disease Patients to retrieve memory. Music therapy with dementia patients also helps with relaxation.


Internet Address: http://otpt.ups.edu /Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manuel/Lentz-A.html

Lentz, Amy. "Supplemental Treatment Techniques for the Patient with Dementia."

This article states that music is an important environmental variable for patients with dementia. Music provides stimulation on the primitive and emotional levels of even the most impaired patient. Two case studies by Norberg et.al (1986) found that music can prevent bedridden patients from withdrawing psychologically.

Internet Address: http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/as22.html.

Each person with dementia is a unique person who is affected in a different way. The caregiver must make the patient feel independent and not be too controlling. Another good thing to remember is that religious and cultural details are very important in the life of a dementia patient. The focus must also be on giving the patient praise and compliments. Knowing that each patient is different and realizing this will help music therapists use a variety of approaches to elicit responses toward their goals.

Internet Address: http://www.music-therapy.demon.co.uk/

"About Music Therapy/under Cambridge Music Therapy Appeal." Music Therapy is a form of treatment where live music is used to work towards therapeutic aims. It can be used for senile dementia. A forgotten song can stir up emotions when played to the elderly. Music is a useful way of depicting the passage of time. The important goal areas with an Alzheimer’s patient are: coordination, memory skills, communication, inclusion of family interaction, and coping skills. A great activity to target of these areas would be singing old familiar songs or having the patient accompany the therapist using a simple instrument while a song is being played. This accompaniment could be done with chimes, rhythm instruments, or any instrument that can be set up so that the client’s only choices of available notes will be harmonically correct. This activity would focus on memory loss-having something familiar played that could stir memory of the past, or speaking skills-the patient may sing along, and on coordination-if the patient has scarves, batons, or small instruments to use with the song. This activity may also include the family. A certain song or songs may bring back and elicit feelings of "good times."


Elderly

Top

Internet Address: http://wkweb5.cableinet.co.uk/garyblatch/music.html

"The Use of Music Therapy with the Elderly Diagnosed with Dementia or Depression." Dunn, J. This site recommends using passive techniques to aid in relaxation and sleep, and using active techniques for enjoyment and socialization.

Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org/1993/1993-199.HTML

Knights, Roger. "Drum Circles for the Elderly."

This article describes an organization, Rhythm for Life. They seek to develop the use of rhythm as an alternative therapy. Drum circles for the elderly can reduce feelings of isolation and loneliness that is often felt.

Internet Address: http://www.alzform.org /members/research/treatment.html.guide1music.html

Alzheimer’s Research Forum-Treatment Guide Music Therapy Goal: This resource contains a list of goals used in music therapy and describes the effects of aging on elderly adults. These goals can be used for music therapists to follow in their assessments of patients and their patients’ families.


Family

Top

Internet Address: http://jake.prod.oclc.org:3057/html/fs_fulltext.htm:%3asession=1847417:56/fstxt56.html.

"Reach Your Confused Relative with Music." oclc-fs@oclc.org (this is first search mail)

This site discusses using music to find new ways to reach your confused relatives. Music can serve as a link between the relative and you. It may also reduce pain, loneliness, and depression. Through the use of therapeutic music, you can connect with your relative in a way that does not require cognitive skills or rational thought. The site concludes with suggested techniques.



Internet Address: http://www.globalideasbank.org /crespec/CS-94.HTML

Carter, John. "Songs as a way of reaching a patient with Alzheimer's"

This site summarizes an article in the Wall Street Journal in which John Carter observed that his mother's memory seemed to be gone, but she could still remember music. She couldn't even remember her own son's name, but she could sing songs from memory. Mother and son could still communicate through music.



Internet Address: http://www.alzform.org /members/research/treatment.html.guide1music.html

Alzheimer’s Research Forum-Treatment Guide Music Therapy Goal: This resource contains a list of goals used in music therapy and describes the effects of aging on elderly adults. These goals can be used for music therapists to follow in their assessments of patients and their patients’ families.

Internet Address: www.noah.cuny.edu /aging/uschc/alzheimers.html OR
http://www.caregiver.org /factsheets/alxheimers.html

Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease which affects changes in nerve cells in the brain and eventually causes death. It affects memory, concentration, speech, and physical coordination. Alzheimer’s is also called the "family disease" because families often will provide full time care for their relatives with this disease. It is important for a music therapist to know the areas that need to be dealt with concerning an Alzheimer’s patient and to also remember that the family is part of these areas.

Internet Address: http://neuro-www.mgh.harvard.edu /neurowebform/Alzheimers Disease Articles

"Using Music Therapy of Sorts." This site describes a case study in which a certified personal trainer finds one of her client's mothers has Alzheimer’s disease and begins to use dance techniques with her.


Physiological and Cognitive Effects

Top

Internet Address: http://jake.prod.oclc.org:3057/html/fs_fulltext.htm:%3asession=1847417:56/fstxt56.html.

"Reach Your Confused Relative with Music." oclc-fs@oclc.org (this is first search mail)

This site discusses using music to find new ways to reach your confused relatives. Music can serve as a link between the relative and you. It may also reduce pain, loneliness, and depression. Through the use of therapeutic music, you can connect with your relative in a way that does not require cognitive skills or rational thought. The site concludes with suggested techniques.



Internet Address: http://www.ama-assn.org/sci pubs/journals/archives/neuro/vol_54/no_12/letter_1.html

Rosenberg, Roger N. MD., ed. "Autopsy-Proven Alzheimer’s Disease in a Patient With Dementia Who Retained Musical Skill in Life".

This article discusses a documented case of the first autopsy-proven Alzheimer’s Disease patient with preserved cognitive skill. The patient was able to independently play a musical instrument while needing assistance with other cognitive activities.



Internet Address: http://www.bandwidth.net /yoda/Music.html.

"The Power of Song".

Researchers are finding that music does more than just soothe the soul. Tims, who is the Chief of Music Therapy at Michigan State University, has worked with men who have Alzheimer's disease. He played them songs that matched their tastes. After six weeks blood tests were given, and the men's meletonin levels had risen 400% from those taken at baseline. Music has a positive effect on Alzheimer's patients.



Internet Address: http://www.agsmith.com /mt.htm http://www.agsmith.com /mt.htm

"Music Therapy".

Alzheimer's is a neurological disorder. Dr. Oliver Sacks in Awakenings said that he considered music therapy a tool of great power. It helps many neurological disorders like Alzheimer's. He found that Alzheimer's patients who could not talk or move would sing or dance to music. Music can organize or reorganize a cerebral function that has been damaged.



Internet Address: http://www.alz.org /facts/rtprogrs.htm http://www.alz.org /facts/rtprogrs.htm

"Alzheimer's Association".

This site contains many facts about what Alzheimer's disease involves. It would provide a therapist with background knowledge. One particular section describes how Alzheimer's progresses. It affects different people in different ways. It is hard for doctors to predict what will happen next. Short-term memory is usually affected first, followed by other intellectual and physical functions.



Internet Address: www.noah.cuny.edu /aging/uschc/alzheimershml# OR
http://www.caregiver.org /factsheets/alxheimers.html

Alzheimer’s is a neurological disease which affects changes in nerve cells in the brain and eventually causes death. It affects memory, concentration, speech, and physical coordination. Alzheimer’s is also called the "family disease" because families often will provide full time care for their relatives with this disease. It is important for a music therapist to know the areas that need to be dealt with concerning an Alzheimer’s patient and to also remember that the family is part of these areas.


Recreation and Quality of Life

Top

Internet Address: http://wkweb5.cableinet.co.uk/garyblatch/music.html

"The Use of Music Therapy with the Elderly Diagnosed with Dementia or Depression." Dunn, J.

This site recommends using passive techniques to aid in relaxation and sleep, and using active techniques for enjoyment and socialization.



Internet Address: http://www.alznsw.asn.au/library/demmang.htm#home

"Dementia Management Principles." This site provides general information about dementia.

The information in this article can be applied when using music as therapy for enjoyment, memory recall, and in other therapeutic arenas.




Relaxation and Sleep

Top

Internet Address: http://wkweb5.cableinet.co.uk/garyblatch/music.html

"The Use of Music Therapy with the Elderly Diagnosed with Dementia or Depression." Dunn, J.

This site recommends using passive techniques to aid in relaxation and sleep, and using active techniques for enjoyment and socialization.



Internet Address: http://www.caregiver.on.ca/cgihidmmt.html

"Music Therapy for Parkinson’s and Dementia".

Music can be used with Alzheimer’s Disease Patients to retrieve memory. Music therapy with dementia patients also helps with relaxation.




Socialization and Social Skills

Top

Internet Address: http://wkweb5.cableinet.co.uk/garyblatch/music.html

"The Use of Music Therapy with the Elderly Diagnosed with Dementia or Depression." Dunn, J.

This site recommends using passive techniques to aid in relaxation and sleep, and using active techniques for enjoyment and socialization.