A-Z List

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Annotated Journals

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Geller, Daniel A., M.B.B.S., Joseph Biederman, M.D., Susan Griffin, B.A., Janice Jones, B.A., and Todd Leflcowitz, B.A. “Comorbidity of Juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.” Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry , 35 No. 12 (1996): 1637-1646. Location- Current.

This article was about examining psychiatric comorbidity in juveniles with obsessive-compulsive disorders. This study was unique because it used no exclusionary criteria for selecting subjects. All previous studies excluded subjects for particular reasons. The comprehensive assessment of psychiatric comorbidity can have major implications on the therapy and research for patients with OCD. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with OCD. These results were then compared with previous studies. The results of the study indicated that in a naturalistic environment, juvenile OCD is very comorbid with both internalizing and externalizing disorders. This study identifies the need to eliminate exclusionary criteria in studies of juvenile OCD.

March, John S., M.D., M.P.H., and Henrietta L. Leonard, M.D. “Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Past 10 Years.” Journal of the American Academy of Chile Adolescent Psychiatry , 35 No. 10 (1996): 1265-1273. Location-Current.

A large number of adolescents suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and few of these individuals receive a correct diagnosis or proper treatment. This article reviews epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, phenomology and natural history, neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Children and adolescents with OCD vary widely regarding nature and impact of OCD. Comorbid conditions are also common in connection with OCD. The most common treatment of OCD is using serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Another method of treatment is Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. The results of the study show that a combination of the two treatments works well. When children are given the correct diagnosis and treatment, they can resume a more normal developmental pattern.

Apter, Alan, M.D., Theodore J. Fallon Jr., M.D., M.P.H., Robert A. King, M.D., Gidi Ratzoni, M.D., Adah Zohar, PH. D., Monica Binder, M.D., Avi Weizman, M.D., James F. Leckman, M.D., David L. Pauls, M.D., Shmuel Kron, M.D., and Donald J. Cohen, M.D. “Obsessive-Compulsive Characteristics: From Symptoms to Syndrome.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 35 No. 7 (1996): 907-912. Location-Current.

This article evaluates the amount of adolescents with obsessive and compulsive characteristics and how this relates to the diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The study involved 16-17 year-old Israelis who filled out a questionnaire and were interviewed by an experienced child and adolescent psychiatrist. The results of the study showed there were no significant differences between males and females. Only 7% of the subjects reported disturbing and intrusive thoughts; however, up to 72% of the subjects endorsed the remaining six OCD symptoms. The study found obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors are commonly endorsed in a general adolescent population. Therefore, it is still uncertain where the line is between psychiatric disorder and obsessive-compulsive phenomena in the general population.

Eisen, Jane L., M.D., Douglas A. Beer, M.D., Michele T. Pato, M.D., Terri A. Venditto, R.N., and Steven A. Rasmussen, M.D. “Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder.” The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154 No. 2 (1997): 271-273. Location-Current.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of DSM-III-R obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Seventy-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were interviewed regarding obsessive and compulsive behaviors. Six of these patients met the DSM-III-R criteria for both obsessive-compulsive behavior and schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The study shows that a significant amount of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder also have OCD. Therefore, medication targeted for OCD may be helpful for these patients.

Bolton, Derek. “Annotation: Developmental Issues of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.” The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37 No. 2 (1996): 131-137. Location-Current.

Obsessions and compulsions have features similar to childhood superstitions and rituals. However, obsessive-compulsive symptoms are longer in duration, are experienced as distressing, and interfere with normal activities. This article discusses current models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) on developmental issues and discusses the research and clinical implications of these models. The models illustrated include the developmental cognitive model of OCD, neurological deficit model of psychopathology, 

neurothological models, and ethnological model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The question of a neurodevelopmental pathway to OCD is still unknown. The validity of the various models of OCD which inform treatment remains uncertain and applies particularly to the developmental bases of these models.

Frost, Randy O. and Gail Steketee. “Perfectionism in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients.” Behavior Research and Therapy, 35 No. 4 (1997): 291-296. Location- Microfiche.

Perfectionism has played a dominant role in understanding obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Research literature as well as clinical findings identify the connection between perfectionism and OCD. There is past evidence that shows non-clinical populations with obsessive-compulsive symptoms also have perfectionist tendencies. This study compared perfectionism levels of OCD patients with non-patients and patients diagnosed with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). Patients with OCD had higher scores  Total Perfectionism, Concern Over Mistakes, and Doubts About Actions compared to non-patients. OCD patients’ scores were similar to patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia.

McKay, Dean. “Shorter Communications.” Behavior Research and Therapy,35 No. 4 (1997): 367-369. Location-Microfiche.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has been described as chronic in nature. Patients normally lapse and relapse between symptom relief following treatment and OCD. The problem of relapse has become a dominant feature in treatments to alleviate OCD. This study shows the effect of a maintenance program over a two-year period of OCD patients treated with exposure and response prevention. The study showed that patients maintained their symptom relief level for the two-year follow-up period regarding 

obsessions, compulsions, and anxiety. Patients were able to manage lapses effectively with help from a therapist. Before treatment is complete, sessions that focus on relapse prevention methods for OCD also focus on other psychological symptoms.

Kozak, Michael J. and Edna B. Foa. “Obsessions, Overvalued Ideas, and Delusions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.”
Behavior Research and Therapy, 32 No. 3 (1994): 343-353. Location- Microfiche.

The dominant belief is that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) understand their obsessive tendencies and are able to recognize them as irrational. Clinical observations show that individuals with OCD who do not consider their behavior as excessive have been defined as delusional or having overvalued ideas. The concepts of obsessions, overvalued ideas, and delusions are discussed in this article. The insight from individuals with OCD is also considered. There is no clear relationship between the level of OCD and the results of therapy. Theories of delusion are evaluated in connection with the development of OCD.

Kaplan, Stephen L. “A Self-Rated Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 50 No. 4 (1994): 564-574.

The self-rated scale for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an objective 35-item questionnaire that measures the severity of OCD. The development of the scale employed both rational and irrational item-selection procedures. A cross-validation study was conducted to test the scale’s reliability and validity. The principle components analysis for both studies identified four orthogonal components: distressing thoughts, rituals, perfection, and fear of contamination. The self-rated scale (SRS) appears comprehensive, easy to use, and a sound instrument to use. SRS is a more reliable efficient measurement of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

Hendrix, Mary Lynn, OSI. “Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Decade of the Brain,” National Institute of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, (HE 20.8102:OB 7/996). Location-US Government Publication Stacks.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a potentially disabling condition that is extremely difficult to overcome. OCD is more common than schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or panic disorder. This pamphlet identifies the key features of OCD, explains what caused OCD, discusses pharmaceutical and behavior therapy, and tells you how to get help. There is also a variety of case histories in the pamphlet that give examples of typical obsessions and compulsions. A Screening Test is provided to help people determine if they have symptoms of OCD. Individuals with OCD are protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

OCD & Eating


Levenkron, S. (1991). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Treating and understanding crippling habits. New York, NY: Warner Books.
UWEC Call #:  RC 533.l48  1991

In this book, Steven Levenkron discusses the roots and causes of compulsive behavior.He takes the reader through a method of breaking through obsessive-compulsive disorder.This method can be used and altered by music therapists working with OCD patients.This book also includes some discussion of eating disorders and how to treat them.It is easy to read and a great reference for anyone looking for basic knowledge and understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Steketee, G.(1993). Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. New York, NY:
Guilford Publications.
UWEC Call #:RC533.s741993

Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a treatment manual for practitioners.This book provides information as well as behavioral treatment ideas.Included is a step-by-step plan which is helpful in planning and conducting treatment.Also discussed in the book is the assessment of OCD.This book is very helpful to music therapists creating treatment plans.

Salzman, L. (1968). The obsessive personality. New York: Science House.
UWEC Call #:RC533.S34

Dr. Leon Salzman explains theories behind obsessive-compulsive disorder in The Obsessive Personality.He also describes lifestyles of people affected by OCD.Included in this book are other syndromes connected to OCD, which is important in music therapy when finding the best approach to or plan for treatment.Dr. Salzman also talks about clinical considerations for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

March, J., Mulle, K. (1998). OCD in children and adolescents. New York, NY:
Guilford Publications.
UWEC Call #:RJ506.O25M371998

This book is designed especially for the treating children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.It discusses assessment and includes a step-by-step treatment program.This program explains how to establishneurobehavioral framework, introduces helpful treatment ideas, and also provides a treatment guide that includes families of OCD patients.Music therapists may find this book helpful especially when working with children and their families.

Rachman, S., & Hodgson, R. (1980). Obsessions and compulsions. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
UWEC Call #:RC533.R31980

Music therapists may be able to use some of the material from this book when treating clients.This book discussed both obsession and compulsion in-depth, as well as the history and contributing factors of OCD.Also shown in this book is how to develop a method of treatment, which a music therapist may wish to reference.

Huebner, H. (1993). Endorphins, eating disorders, and other addictive behaviors.
New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co.
UWEC Call #:RC533.H841993

In this book, a music therapist may find the considerations toward reward-mediated behavior very helpful when working with clients who have eating disorders.This book explains anorexia and bulimia very well, along with treatment methods specially designed for eating disorders.Other addictive behavioral disorders are discussed as well.

Button, E. (1993). Eating disorders, personal construct therapy and change. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
UWEC Call # RC 552.E18 B87

This book outlines a personal construct approach to understanding and helping people whose lives are taken over by food issues.It begins with an overview of eating disorders, followed by a detailed description of the concepts and techniques of personal construct psychology-paying particular attention to the context of people with eating disorders.The third part describes a series of case studies.Finally, the author considers specific issues with the arise in the field of eating disorders and personal construct psychology as well as discussing possible future directions in this area.The author briefly mentions the use of music as a tool to helping patients. Later, on page two hundred and ten he states, based on his clinical experience, that there is a good case for more exploration of the constructing approach of treating people with eating disorders using more activities involving music, dance, and poetry.This allows the therapist to tap deeper into the eating disorder patient.It begins to rebuild and recover the part of the disorder that causes the patient to hold their feelings inside through the use of music.So not only does this book show support for the use of Music Therapy, it also proves to be an important source book for all health professionals working with suffers of eating disorders to help them research and learn how to go about treating their patients.

Ball-Parente, A.(1989).Feeding the hungry soul: music as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Music Therapy Perspectives, 6, 44-48.

This article is very helpful.Alice Ball-Parente has done a lot of research in regards to Music Therapy helping people with eating disorders.This article really outlines the whole procedure for music therapist when treating a client with an eating disorder.She has a lot of really good information and ideas for session goals and activities to help the client deal with their emotions.

Nolan, P. (1989). Music as a transitional object in the treatment of bulimia.Music Therapy Perspectives, 6, 49-51.

This article relates again to the treatment of bulimia patients with transitional improvised music therapy.Nolan describes the usefulness of transitional object and gives examples of cases where it has improved patient’s behavior and increased amount of response and expression of personal feelings.The article supports the use of music therapy to “open” a patient up so they can begin to work towards curing their disorder with their private therapist or family.

Baker, E., & Hornyak, L. (1989). Experiential therapies for eating disorders. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
UWEC Call# RC 552 .E18 E96

This book contains a wealth of information on treating eating disorders with music therapy.It focuses on the use of experiential therapies (guided imagery, movement, art, and music) for uncovering stored feelings and memories.Which relate a great deal to the patients eating disorder.There are two chapters of great interest to music therapy and how it helps people with eating disorders get positive results

Baker, E. & Hornyak, L. (1989). Experiential therapies for eating disorders.
(Nolan, Chap 9, p167-186). Music therapy improvisation techniques with bulimic patients. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
UWEC Call# RC 552 .E18 E96

It shares a variety of case studies in which music was useful in facilitating psychotherapy by stimulating awareness and expression of emotions and ideas on the immediate level.The first part of the chapter describes theoretical concepts that apply to the process of group music therapy with bulimics and a rationale for the use of music therapy with this population.The second part focuses on the methods of group improvisation with case studies provided as illustrations.It emphasizes the use of music therapy within a group format.

Baker, E., & Hornyak, L. (1989). Experiential therapies for eating disorder. (Parnete, Chap. 15, 305-329)Music as a therapeutic tool in treating anorexia nervosa. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
UWEC Call # RC 552 .E18 E96

She outlines is all aspects how music therapy is used to treat Anorexia Nervosa.She explains the disorder and the goals a music therapist ought to consider when working with the client, and also gives many examples of music to use in certain areas along with other art activities to include in the therapy sessions.Music therapy has three main processes used to elicit positive behavioral change and client improvement:experience within structure, experience in self-organization, and experience in relating to others.This chapter explains how to achieve all those changes in anorexia suffers.

Dokter, D.(1994). Art therapies and clients with eating disorders. UK: Jessica Kingsley Publisher Ltd.
UWEC Call # RC 552 .E18 A78

Section six of this book is devoted to Treating Eating Disorders with Music Therapy.There are three articles of main interest that discuss different case studies that support the use of Music Therapy.Not only does this book give examples of music therapy related treatment but it covers the other arts (theater, drawing/painting,) as well.

Dokter, D. (1994). Art therapies and clients with eating disorders. (Robarts, Chap. 15, 229-246) Music therapy and the individuation process in relation to children and adolescents with early onset anorexia nervosa.UK: Jessica Kingsley Publisher Ltd.
UWEC Call # RC 552 .E18 A78

It gives a background for music therapy and uses a case study from a particular patient to explain how music therapy was used and how it effected the patient.In conclusion the improvisational music therapy offers a potential space for feelings to be expresses in the dynamic forms of musical improvisation.

Dokter, D.(1994).Art therapies and clients with eating disorders. (Sloboda, Chap. 16, 247-261) Individual music therapy with anorexic and bulimic patients.
UK: Jessica Kingsley Publisher Ltd.
UWEC Call # RC 552 .E18 A78

There are accounts of individual music therapy work with several people suffering from eating disorders.Sloboda describes the settings in which the work was done, the influences on her way of working, and she puts forth some ideas as to why she considers music therapy to be an effective form of treatmentwith the clients in her group.This article is very informative and supportive of using Music Therapy as an eating disorder treatment.

Dokter, D. (1994).Art Therapies and Clients with Eating Disorders.
(Rogers, Chap. 17, 262-278) Sexual abuse and eating disorders (A possible connection indicated through music therapy).UK: Jessica Kingsley Publisher Ltd.
UWEC Call # RC 552 .E18 A78

Although eating disorders are the main topic, this chapter shows that there may be a correlation between the two of them.The idea came up through music therapy sessions with eating disorder patients in which the music was able to allow them to release some bottled up feelings and memories that were a main cause of the eating disorder.This chapter too, gives a lot of examples of the use of Music Therapy in this area and helps one understand the complications of the disorder.