A-Z List


Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Journal Articles

Compiled by Shannon McMahon - December 10, 1997


Compiled by Shannon McMahon - December 10, 1997

B., B. Music and Young Children. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc. New York, New York. 1976. MT1.A8

This book contains information on teaching young children music. It describes how music for young children can be a means of combined intellectual and emotional growth, learning that is significant as well as joyful, and far-reaching in its influence. It also contains useful information on keeping children's attention during musical activities.

Birkenshaw-Fleming, Lois. Music for All: Teaching Music to People with Special Needs.G.V. Thompson Music. Toronto, Canada. 1993. ML3920.B52

This book shows how to use music to teach all people with special needs, not just children. These people range from the physically handicapped to the learning disabled.

Cole, Frances. Music for Children with Special Needs. Bowmar Records, Inc. North Hollywood, California. 1965. RC489.M7

This book is a collection of songs for children with special needs. Beside each song is a comment on how the song could be best used. Along with the comment are several activities that could go along with the songs to keep the child's attention.

Dobbs, Jack Percival Baker.  The Slow Learner and Music: a Handbook for Teachers. Oxford U.P. New York, New York. 1966. MT1.D63

This book describes how music plays an important role in the education of slow learners. It contains chapters on the value of music to children, music in the life of the school, singing together, playing instruments, listening to music, movement and dance, and the relation of music to other subjects.

Graham, Richard M.  Teaching Music to the Exceptional Child: a Handbook for Mainstreaming. MT1.A8. MT1.G78

This book is designed to bring about learning experiences for teacher, teacher trainees, school administrators, parents, therapists, counselors, and others in the areas of: planning and writing music education goals and objectives into the child's individualized educational program, preparation of "regular" school personnel to deal with exceptional children in school music learning situations, developing skills for the music teacher of exceptional children in the least restrictive environment, and assessment of exceptional children and their music education programs in order that both might be modified in favor of the child's growth and development, musical and otherwise. This book contains a special section on span of attention that gives examples of songs and activities that could be used to help keep the attention of an attention deficit person.

Kirk, Samuel A.  Academic and Developmental Learning Disabilities. Love Publishing Co. Denver, Colorado, 1984.MT1.A8. V

This book is very useful in understanding different learning disabilities. The purpose of this book is to provide a basis for classifying children with learning disabilities to help teachers diagnose and remediate those children. It also has a chapter on attentional disabilities that contains a case study, definitions of attentional deficits, classification of attentional deficits, attentional demands of learning tasks, guidelines for assessing problems of attention, and strategies for improving attending behavior.

Michel, Donald E. Music Therapy: an Introduction to Therapy and Special Education through Music. C.C. Thomas. Springfield, Illinois. 1976. MT1.A8. ML3920.M48

As the title suggests, this book talks about using music for the therapy and special education of special learners, including attention deficit. It gives an overview of music therapy concepts and gives guidelines for planning and carrying out session plans.

Mill, Paula Hollen. Helping the Special Learner Through Musical Activities. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc. New York, New York. 1976. MT1.A8. ML3920.M535

The purpose of this book is to provide special educators with musical activities which can be used effectively with students of various ages and abilities, and which will teach a variety of needed skills. This book describes musical activities that can be used to help the special learner. All songs are written to be used along with a game or activity to increase the student's motivation, and they are short to keep the child's attention. For each activity it lists skills taught by song, materials needed, directions for activity, and adaptations. For most activities the book also provides patterns for cutouts that could be used. All activities can be used equally well with either an individual child or a small group of students.

Smith, Corinne Roth. Learning Disabilities: the Interaction of Learner, Task, and Setting. MT1.A8. LC4704.S618

This book contains information on all sorts of learning disabilities, including attention deficit disorder. It describes the concept of learning disabilities, causes of learning disabilities, the role of the learner, the task, and the setting.

Ward, David. Hearts and Hands and Voices: Music in the Education of Slow Learners. Oxford University Press. New York, New York. 1976. MT1.A8. ML3920.W27

This book describes how music plays an important role in the education of slow learners. It describes different methods used with music in the education process, giving many examples of songs and activities. It describes the different types of slow learners and explains how to plan and carry out music sessions with each type individually.

Wood, Miriam. Music for People with Learning Disabilities. Souvenir Press. London, England. 1993. ACF3070

I could not find this book in the library, but it seems like it would be very useful in researching music therapy in helping a person with attention deficit disorder.

Compiled by Brad Nadeau - December 7, 1999

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Aldridge, David. Music therapy research and practice in medicine: from out of the silence. Main Collection. ML3920.A33 1996

This book describes the effects of music therapy as it is practiced and some uses of music in dealing with patients with ADHD. It suggests that music can be used to focus the attention of ADHD clients.



Weinberg, Harvey A. Parent training for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Parental and child outcome. Journal of Clinical Psychology. July 1999. Pages 907-913. 0021-9762

This article described a study with thirty-four patients who had children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The parents participated in a group “parent training program” that taught them about ADHD and behavior management. Music Therapists could enroll the parents of their clients in this program to help the parents understand some of the reasons the music therapist is doing the activities they are.

B., B. Behavior disorders in children – Treatment. Science News. 8-7-99. Page 90. 0036-8423

This article reports the results of a study done in 1997 which concluded that fears of overprescription of stimulant medications for children with behavioral problems are unfounded. Only 8 of 66 children who meet the criteria for ADHD received stimulant treatment. This study can help Music Therapists to understand reasons medication is prescribed for their clients with ADHD. It offers guidelines for when and when not to use medication. Music may be used in lieu of medication to help focus attention, and in general to calm the children and offer a safe, healthy outlet for emotional release.

Perry, T.M.. Music lessons for children with special needs. CRIM IMC Professional Collection. MT17.P47 1995

This book proposes that music therapy is more effective for children with special needs than conventional therapy. Children with special needs relating to ADD/ADHD benefit in particular from this therapy.

Barkley, Russell A. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a new theory suggests that the disorder results from a failure in self-control: ADHD may arise when key brain circuits do not develop properly, perhaps because of an altered gene or genes. Scientific American, 1998. 99-0113410

This publication describes the inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behavior of children with ADHD and brain structures related to the disorder. It suggests that parents and teachers need training in methods of managing these behavior problems. This training on focusing attention would be beneficial for Music Therapists to help them develop activities which will succeed in doing just that.

Hanser, Suzanne B. Music therapist's handbook. Main Collection. ML3920.H3 1987.

This book provides a quick reference about certain types of treatment. The section on ADHD explores the needs ADHD clients may have along with how these needs may be met.

Marx, Jean. How Stimulant Drugs May Calm Hyperactivity. Science. 1-15-99. Page 306. 0036-8075

This article presents findings from studies done on mice that show stimulants have a calming effect on mice with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It also explains how stimulants can be used in treating the condition. They may raise the levels of serotonin in the body. The role of dopamine in the body is described.

Zametkin, Alan J.; Ernst, Monique. Problems in the Management of Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine. 1-7-99. Issue 1. Page 40. 0028-4793

This article presents an overview of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It examines considerations including diagnosis and some symptoms seen in some children with ADHD such as impulsivity and motor restlessness. Treatments, social-skills training, individual counseling, risk of substance abuse among those with ADHD, and controversial therapies for the condition are discussed.

Heiligenstein, Eric; Guenther, Greta; Levy, Andrea; Savino, Felix; Fulwiler, Jan. Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American College Health. January 1999. Issue 4, p. 181. 0744-8481

This article reports information from a study that examined the psychological and academic impairments in college students not previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study found many college students with ADHD have difficulty with their studies, and are often behind other classmates in many areas.

Compiled by Katie Opatrny - October 29, 1998

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Frans Schalkwijk; Translated by Andrew James. Music and People with Developmental Disabilities: Music Therapy, Remedial Music Making and Musical Activities. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Bristol, PA, 1994. UWEC McIntyre Library – Main Stacks. ML3920.S323

This book is a clinical guide to Music Therapy as a form of psychotherapeutic care. Great emphasis is placed on the benefits of both individual therapy and group therapy in the treatment of developmental disorders. The activities would foster emotional expression and personal growth of an ADHD patient. The author focuses on improving the self-esteem of a client and improving their social skills. It includes common musical techniques, activities and their application to the treatment of the client. This would improve an ADHD individual’s cognitive and social functioning.


Jean Hunter Tomat and Carmel D. Krutzky. Learning Through Music for Special Children and their Teachers. UWEC McIntyre Library – IMC. The Merriam-Eddy Company South Waterford, MA, 1975. ML3920.T67.

This is a handbook for music therapists or teachers using music with  learning disabled children. Music is used as an enhancement tool and as a learning reinforcer. The musical activities would improve receptivity of students with ADHD to other learning as well. The musical activities place an emphasis on social development, self-expression, listening skills (also improves responses to auditory and visual instructions), and speech and motor coordination, all of which may benefit the ADHD child.

Lois Herman Friedlander. Group Music Psychotherapy in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting for Children: A Developmental Approach. UWEC McIntyre Library – Bound Journals. Music Therapy Journal: Perspectives, Vol 12 no.2, 1994 p.92-97.

This article introduces into the field of music therapy a new form of child group music psychotherapy. It was developed over a period of many years to meet the unique treatment needs of hospitalized children. The report briefly discusses the history of child group psychotherapy, the clinical setting, the child population and the framework behind conducting this form of music therapy. Group musical activities such as these can help children with developmental delays, hyperactivity and learning disabilities learn to more positively express their feelings. This approach would also help children learn how to function adequately in a group. It also helps them develop a clearer self-concept.

Pasquale J, Accardo, Thomas A. Blondis, and Barbara Y. Whitman. Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity in Children. UWEC McIntyre Library – IMC. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 1991. RJ506.H9A89

This book is a volume in the Pediatric Habilitation series about developmental disabilities in children. It describes ADHD from various neurochemical aspects. ADHD is a high-incidence, low-severity developmental disorder. This resource provides evidence of the role of the central nervous system in ADHD. It offers recommendations for treatment and management of ADHD and stresses the importance of selectively analyzing accompanying learning styles. This book clearly describes the medical foundations of ADHD.

Louise Montello and Edgar E. Coons. Effects of Active versus Passive Group Music Therapy on Preadolescents with Emotional, Learning, and Behavioral Disorders. UWEC McIntyre Library – Journals Current. Journal of Music Therapy, XXXV (1), 1998 p.49-67

This article is about active and passive group music therapy. A study was conducted to test one music therapy approach over another. The test subjects showed a great deal of improvement after both music therapy approaches. The patients showed changes in attention, motivation, and hostility after the sessions. A significant change occurred in the subjects’ aggression and hostility levels. The results also show the positive benefits of choosing one form of therapy over another based on personality types and clinical diagnosis of subjects. This article would be a valuable source to use to decide what approach to take in administering music therapy with a preadolescent with ADHD.

Jennie Purris and Shelley Samet. Music in Developmental Therapy: A Curriculum Guide. UWEC McIntyre Library – IMC. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD, 1976. ML3920.M8965

This guide is based on the structure of the developmental therapy curriculum. It stresses the importance of applying music and other musical activities to help young children with emotional or behavioral disorders and places an emphasis on the child’s strengths. In this environment, children are grouped according to stage of development as opposed to age. This grouping is beneficial to ADHD children. The guide contains a detailed index with specific objectives and goals for that individual and matches them with corresponding music therapy learning experiences, which are provided in the book.

Richard A. Gardner. Hyperactivity, The So-Called Attention Deficit Disorder. UWEC McIntyre Library – Main Stacks. Creative Therapeutics,  Cresskill, NJ, 1987. RJ496.B7G36

This book provides insight into the many aspects of neurological functioning in people with ADHD. It describes what is different in people with ADHD logically, visually, in auditory processing, in speech, and in fine motor coordination. There is an in-depth section on hyperactivity and on the attention-sustaining capacity. It also includes current theories on ADHD and provides an overview of the effects of medication on people with ADHD. This resource would be helpful in planning and adapting music therapy sessions to fit the special needs of ADHD clients.

Stephen W. Garber, Marianne Daniels Garber and Robyn Freedman Spizman. Is Your Child Hyperactive? Inattentive? Impulsive? Distractible? Helping the ADHD child. UWEC McIntyre Library – IMC. Villard Books,  New York, NY, 1995. RJ496.A86G35

This book provides a complete overview of ADHD, ranging from a description of its possible causes to a listing of possible treatments. It places a great emphasis on gaining acceptance and support. It stresses the importance of support from siblings and other relatives, friends, and teachers. It offers suggestions on how to tell a child about ADHD. The material covered also includes the diagnostic criteria for diagnosing ADHD and provides information on controlling aggression. An important part of the book is the description of possible treatments suggested to use to help lengthen attention span. This would be helpful information in planning music therapy sessions because it encourages active participation of the client’s family.

Cynthia M. Colwell. Adapting Music Instruction for Elementary Students with Special Needs: A Pilot. UWEC McIntyre Library – Bound Journals. Music Therapy Journal: Perspectives, Vol. 13 no.2, 1995 p.97-103

This article is about a study that was conducted to compare the effect of two types of music lessons (non-adapted versus adapted) on the behaviors of two students with special needs. The results indicated that both students were more on task, more successful at the tasks, and more apt to interact with their peers if the lesson was adapted to their needs. This is an important consideration for "mainstreaming" or "including" special needs students. It also presents specific implications for ADHD students.

Tony Wigram. he Psychological and Physiological Effects of Low Frequency Sound and Music. UWEC McIntyre Library – Bound Journals. Music Therapy Journal: Perspectives, Vol 13, no.1, 1995 p,16-22.

This article is about the effect of music on physical conditions such as pain, muscle tone, blood pressure, and heart rate. More specifically, the article focuses on the effects of therapy known as Vibroacoustic Therapy (VA) on clients who have raised levels of anxiety and hyperactivity. The effects can be manipulated to treat a particular client’s specific problem areas.