p. 132

Usually the term blind refers not only to _________________________

_____________ but also to _______________________________.

Individuals are considered to be legally blind when ________________


or when ____________________________________________________


Partially sighted people have a visual acuity of between ___________ and

________ in _____________________ after _________________.

For educational purposes, children are sometimes classified as blind when


while they are classified as partially sighted if __________________________


What is residual sight?



What is guiding vision?


What is perception of form and motion?


What is residual light perception?


What is the definition of totally blind?


What is myopia?


What is hyperopia?


What is the difference between tunnel vision and peripheral vision?


Severe astigmatism causes a ___________ image due to light rays in the eye not

______________________________________ because of irregularities in the curvature of the ___________.


What is amblyopia?


Nystagmus is a ___________ disorder that causes _________________


Individuals with albinism have a lack of __________________ that filters out

_____________________ and can literally be _______________ by the ____.

When a person has cataracts, the lens of the eye loses its ______________, and vision becomes ____________ and _____________.


p. 132 - 133

Glaucoma is an eye disease characterized by increased _______________

________________ that distorts the eye's ability to __________ and may lead to

_________________ if _______________________.


p. 133

Retinitis pigmentosa is a hereditary condition in which the retina gradually ________________________________________.

Cortical blindness is loss of sight due to _______________________ to the

________________________; although the eye itself may be intact, the brain is unable to ___________ or ______________ visual stimuli.


Protective structures serve to ________________ the eye from injury and include the _____________,_____________________,___________________,

______________________________________, and tears.

The refractive components serve to ___________ the light and visual stimuli; they include the _____________, ________, ______________________, and______________.

Directive structures are those _______________ that _______ the eyes ___,

_________, and to the _____________.

Receptive components _______________, _________________, and

______________ visual stimuli; they include the __________,____________


List causes of blindness.







p. 134

Outline the section on common characteristics, problems, and needs of clients.





p. 137

One of the greatest needs of persons with severe visual impairments is that of developing skills to _________________________________________as independently as possible. This process involves:





p. 141

What adaptations may be needed to make musical activities accessible to people with visual impairments?







From lecture, not from text:


What tactile adaptations did Lee Anna suggest using with people with visual impairments?




What other adaptations did Lee Anna recommend?




What did Lee Anna say about teaching auditory compensation to people with visual impairments?