p. 144

Orthopedics in the branch of medical science that deals with disorders involving the _____________________, ____________, _________________, and __________.

_______________ impairments may also be called physical disabilities, physical handicaps, physical impairments, or crippling conditions.

What are congenital disabilities?


What are adventitious disabilities?



p. 145

Cerebral palsy is a condition resulting from damage to the ____________________

_____________________________. Almost 2/3 of all individuals diagnosed with cerebral palsy have the spastic type, which is characterized by _______________, tense, stiff movements, and _________________ movement patterns and __________________ resulting from the inability of the muscles to ___________ and the disturbance of ___________________________________. About 15 - 20 % of individuals who have CP have the athetoid type, which is characterized by ____________________________________________________________and abnormal, irregular ___________________________________. Another 5 - 8 % of people with CP have the ____________ type, which is caused from damage to the ___________________. The type results in a poor sense of ______________ and

poor _________________________, unsteady and uncoordinated movements, an unsteady __________, and lack of ____________________ and ________.

Individuals with the rigid type of CP have a "lead-pipe" stiffness or _____________

in their ________________________, caused by _________________________

_________________________________. those with the tremor type have involuntary, ____________________________________ of their limbs, especially when they attempt ______________________________ or are _______________. In contrast to the irregular patterns of athetosis, these tremors are usually fairly ____________ and _______________. Atonic CP is found primarily in ___________ and is characterized by ______________________. As affected individuals grow older, atonia may develop into ________________.

What is hypertonicity?


What is hypotonia?



p. 146

Spina bifida results when:



85 - 90 % of all children with spina bifida have hydrocephalus in which the head is ______________ because the normal circulation of _______________________

is ______________, and ___________________________________________.

How is hydrocephalus treated?


Muscular dystrophy is a ________________________ disease that is characterized by _____________________________________.

p. 146 - 147

Compare and contrast these types of MD:

Duchenne, limb-girdle, facioscapulohumeral (FSH), and Becker


















Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, progressive disease of the _____________________

__________________that may involve the nerves affecting _________________

________________________ and __________________.

What common motor problems are associated with MS?




Poliomyelitis is a _______________________ that attacks the ______________

__________________________ and injures or destroys __________________ that control the ________________, causing temporary or permanent ________.

Also known as polio or ___________________________, this disease most often affects the _________________________, although it may affect any muscles, including those involved in ____________________ and _________________.


Arthrogryposis is a congenital condition characterized by __________________ and __________________________. Although deformities and conditions associated with arthrogryposis may severely impact coordination and mobility, __________ and _________________ are usually unaffected.

p. 147 - 148

What is clubfoot?


p. 148

What is clubhand?


What is scoliosis?

What is lordosis?

What is kyphosis?


Arthritis is characterized by ___________________ or pain and ____________ in the joints.

What is JRA?


Contrast three different types of arthritis  seen in children:

systemic, polyarticular, and pauciarticular









p. 148 - 149

Contrast two main types of arthritis seen in adults:

rheumatoid and osteoarthritis







Treatment for individuals with arthritic diseases is concerned with: _____________ pain, reducing ____________________, maintaining or _____________________

______________________, preventing ___________________________, helping maximize ________________________________, and reducing _____________



In a spinal cord injury what determines the extent of the damage?



When the spinal cord is damaged in the thoracic area or below, __________________  (loss of lower body movement and sensation) results.

Damage to the cervical area of the spinal cord results in _____________________, the loss of body movement and sensation below the __________.

Treatment and rehabilitation of persons with spinal cord injuries focuses on helping them _______________________ as well as helping them learn ___________



According to the classroom lecture (not in text), what did Lee Anna say is the leading cause of death for people who are paralyzed?


p. 150

What is hemiplegia?


What is a CVA?


What causes the damage resulting from a stroke?



After a broken bone is set and immobilized by a cast or traction apparatus, and once the cast is removed, the patient will need to _____________________________



p. 151

Treatment and rehabilitation for individuals who have amputations includes exercises to _____________________________ and prevent __________________ and training in the use of ____________________ devices.

What is osteogenesis imperfecta?


What is osteoporosis?


The primary causes of osteoporosis are:




Osteoporosis may also occur in connection with ______________________, ______________________________, and ____________________________.

Complications of osteoporosis include increased risk of _____________,
_______________________________, ___________, and loss of ___________.

Prevention and treatment programs for osteoporosis usually include special ___________________________ or _____________ exercises to help preserve _________, strengthen ________________________ muscles, and maintain ____________________. Treatment may also include adjusting _________ to insure adequate ____________________________________ and taking medications.


p. 152

Describe the impact of physical disorders in social arenas.






p. 155 - 156

Outline the section about using music therapy interventions to help elicit movement and decrease pain perception.
















p. 156 - 157

Outline the section about positive influences of music therapy interventions on muscle tone.














p. 158 - 160

Outline the section about using music therapy interventions to help strengthen muscles and joints, increase endurance, and promote physical fitness.








p. 160 - 162

Outline the section about using music therapy interventions to help regulate physical movement and increase motor control and coordination.
















From classroom lecture (not in text):

    How did Lee Anna use popsickle sticks to target motor skills?




   What error did Lee Anna point out that some people make when using "big knob" sets of rhythm instruments?




    Why does Lee Anna like to use xylopipes with people with physical disabilities?



    For what purpose did Lee Anna use a keyboard with the ROM function with blinking lights with people who had hand injuries?



    For what two reasons did Lee Anna use weights on the arms or legs of her patients?


    Lee Anna described the use of exercises and playing instruments to target strength, functional use, and range of motion. What four reasons did she give to explain why the music therapy activities were successful in these arenas?





p. 162  - 163

Outline the section about how music therapy experiences can facilitate communication and emotional expression for persons with orthopedic disabilities.

















p. 163 - 164

Outline the section about how music therapy experiences increase self-esteem and provide opportunities for personal enrichment.











p. 164 -165

Outline the section about how music therapy experiences provide opportunities for socialization and increase social skills














p. 165 - 166

Outline the section about special considerations and tips for success.











p. 167

In what four ways can music therapy interventions complement physical therapy programs and motor skill development goals?