What term is now used instead of Mental Retardation?
Definitions for mental retardation given by the American Association on Mental Retardation and by the American Psychiatric Association both include the following three components:
According to the AAMR, individuals are considered to have significantly subaverage intellectual functioning when their IQ scores are: __________ or below. This score represents approximately _______________________________ below the mean, allowing for a measurement error of ________ points.
Adaptive functioning refers to : ______________________________________with the common ___________________________ and how well they __________________________________, based on the expectations for an average individual of their age and sociocultural group.
List the areas listed in your text which are included under the term adaptive functioning.
The term developmental disability is a more ______________ term and may include individuals with other conditions, such as ___________, ___________________,________________, and other ____________________ ______________________________, who may or may not also have mental retardation.
A developmental disability is attributable to a ____________ or ____________________________________ that begins before age __ and is likely to continue _______________ and that results in ___________________________________in __________ or more areas of major life activity.
DSM-IV includes the category of pervasive developmental disorders for specific disorders (e.g., ____________, _____________________________,_____________________) that are characterized by ___________ and__________________ impairments in _________________ areas of development, including deficits in ____________________________and ______________________ and the presence of _________________behaviors, interests, or activities. Although about _______________% of the individuals who have pervasive developmental disorders also have mental retardation, individuals with these disorders will not necessarily also have ______________or ______________deficits.
In a sense mental retardation is a much more specific term than developmental disability, because, in individuals with mental retardation, their limits in ______________________ functioning are related primarily to their___________________ limitations and not some other _____________ or____________________factors.
Down syndrome, also known as _____________________ and formally called
_________________________, is one of the congenital conditions that is characterized by some degree of mental retardation.
p. 80 - 81
Outline the section on causes of mental retardation.
Persons of IQ levels of 50 - 55 to approximately 70 are said to have _____________________________, those with IQ levels ranging from 35 - 40 to 50 - 55 are considered to have _______________________________________, those with IQ levels ranging from 20 - 25 to 35 - 40 are classified as having ______________________________________________, and those with IQ levels below 20 or 25 are diagnosed with _________________________________________.
Historically, many educators have used a different classification system which groups individuals with mental retardation by educational potential into the following four groups:
1. slow learners, or _______________ retarded children, usually capable of:
and go on to become:
IQs generally fall in the _______________ range.
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2. educable mentally retarded (EMR) children - progress at a developmental rate that is approximately _____________________ that of average children. They are usually not ready for ___________, _________, and ____________ skills at age six. However, they can eventually be expected to maintain anywhere from a ________-grade to a _________- grade skills level. Their IQs tend to fall in the _________range. As adults, most will be capable of :
3. Trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children develop at a rate approximately ________________________ that of average children. Their IQs generally fall within the _______________ range, and many have ____________ or ______________impairments in addition to their retardation. When they are given special training, many TMR children can learn _______________ skills, elementary ______________ skills, and common _____________________, but most are incapable of achieving any but the most rudimentary ________________academic skills. As adults, some bay be capable of:
4. Profoundly retarded children usually have multiple problems, which may
include ____________________ impairments, developmental ____________,
_______________ impairments, _______________, and bizarre ___________.Their IQs are generally below _______. These children often require _________________________________, ____________________, and_____________. Some can learn to __________ and ____________________________________ but many are ______________________ and___________________________.Although they may vocalize, profoundly retarded individuals rarely develop _________________ speech.
The 1992 AAMR Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports views mental retardation not as a __________ to be measured but as a __________ in which functioning is impaired in certain specific ways. The result is a classification system for mental retardation in which the person's ____________________________ is the critical measure; thus, the classification is focused on an individual's ___________behavior and _______________________________________, not severity of_______________ impairment. For purposes of classifying severity of impairment, the person's strengths and weaknesses are described in reference to _____________, ___________, and _______________ dimensions and a profile is developed of needed _____________________________ (_________________,_______________,_________________, or ________________) across the four basic dimensions of (Dimension I) ____________________________________,(Dimension II) ____________________________________________________,(Dimension III) ____________________________________________________,and (Dimension IV) ____________________________________. These descriptions are more functional, relevant, and oriented to __________________________ and_____________________ than the other labeling systems.
The paradigm shift engendered by the 1992 AAMR classification system represents the third phase in evolution of services for individuals who have mental retardation, from the former phases of _____________________________ (Phase 1; prevalent well into the twentieth century), __________________________________________________________________________ (Phase 2; beginning in the 1970s) to a functional supports model.
Conceptual intelligence relates to a person's ability to ____________________________________________________________ and to _____________________________________________________. This type of
intelligence is what is generally measured on _______ tests. It also impacts
___________ skill areas, such as __________ skills, functional ___________, and __________.
Practical intelligence is concerned with an individual's ability to ________________
___________________________________________________. This type of
intelligence is central to the ______________ skill areas of _______________,
functional ____________________, ______________, ___________________,
________________________________, and use of ______________________
Social intelligence includes the ability to _______________________________
______________________ and the behaviors of ____________ and the
ability to judge _____________________________________________
____________________________________________. This type of intelligence
is important to _________________ skill areas of _______________________
________________________, ___________________________, _________,
_________________, __________________________, and use of
Atterbury has described 4 special learning needs for people with mental retardation:
Research has indicated that persons with mental retardation demonstrate better skill generalization and retention when skills are taught as __________________________________
rather than in _________________.
Outline the section on settings for service delivery.
Outline the introductory section on how music is used in therapy.
Outline the music therapy strategies presented for each of these categories of work:
To Improve Communication Skills
To Improve Academic, Cognitive, and Vocational Skills
To Improve Motor Skills
To Improve Social and Emotional Skills
To Improve Self-Help and Independent Living Skills
To Improve Leisure Skills
Outline the section on Special Considerations and Tips for Success