p. 98

Give the definition of Learning Disability used in PL 94-142.




The term includes:




p. 98 - 99

The term does not include:





p. 99

In 1981 the National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities printed a definition that stresses __________________________________________ basis for the disability, notes the ___________________________________________ in each individual, and recognizes that learning disabilities exist in individuals of all _______.


What four separate codes does the DSM-IV definition provide?




The primary diagnostic criteria for learning disorders are:









It is important to remember that learning disabilities are disorders in  ____________________ processing not in general ____________________



What is a developmental reading disorder?



What is dyslexia?



What is dyscalculia?



What is a developmental expressive writing disorder?



p. 100

What is a sequencing disorder?



What is a tracking disorder?



What is dysgraphia?



What is a discrimination disorder?



What is a visual figure-ground disorder?



What is a visual closure disorder?



What is an auditory closure disorder?



What is alexia?



What is dysgraphia?



What is a perseveration disorder?


What is a left to right orientation disorder?


What is a developmental articulation disorder?


What is a developmental expressive language disorder?


What is a developmental receptive disorder?


What is a cluttering disorder?


What is ADD?


What is ADHD?


List 6 contributing causes to the subtle disturbances in brain dysfunction that may cause learning disabilities.








Most conditions classified as learning disabilities cannot be cured but rather must be _____________.

p. 101

Most people with learning disabilities adapt to them and live fulfilling lives not by being cured but by developing their ________________________________.

p. 101 - 102

Outline the section on common characteristics, problems, and needs of clients.








p. 102 - 103

Outline the section on settings for service delivery. 





p. 104

In general music therapy programs and intervention strategies for individuals with learning disabilities focus on one or more of 6 areas:








p. 104 - 105

Music therapists frequently structure their treatment programs so that the difficulty level and amount of structure in the music task complements the level of _________ and

____________________________ expected at each stage of the music therapy process. For example, in the early stages of the program, experiences are

________________________________ and geared for ___________________,

with all ________________ being made by the _______________. As they develop skills in ____________ and __________________________, clients are given more opportunities to work ______________________________________________ and to make some __________________________________________. They may also have to _________________________________________________ before achieving success. In later stages, individuals are given more ___________________ in developing _________________________________ and may work in _______

and make _________________________, with the therapist providing only 


p. 105

Music experiences that are carefully structured to demand increased levels of attention and independence can help individuals learn to control and manage their own behavior in 4 ways:







How can musical activities help develop attention span?






p. 105 - 106

Outline the section on using music to improve auditory and visual skills.










p. 106 - 107

Outline the section on using music to support academic learning.











p. 107 - 108

Outline the section on using music to improve communication skills.









p. 108

How can music promote social and emotional growth and development?









p. 108 - 109


How can music support music education and help develop leisure skills?








p. 109

Outline the section on special considerations and tips for success.