Chapter 3 - A Historical Overview

p. 20

According to Boxberger why was music so intimately bound up with medical practices in the cultures of ancient people?


In primitive tribal civilizations in Africa who functioned as the tribe's chief musician, medicine man, and priest?

p.21 American Indian medicine men used specific songs to treat ________________________________.


Many medicine men or shamans of the American Southwest, Mexico, and Central America believed the power for healing a particular illness or disease resided in a particular __________.

The Navaho Indians used _______________ as their healing ceremonies, employing special combinations of _______________, ____________________, and __________________in particular patterns to cure specific illnesses.

For the Navaho, an important part of medicine was their belief that "the magic of the _______________ will bring healing".

Shamans often used specific ______________________ to contact the gods or spirits and establish communication between beings on earth and those in the sky and/or the underworld. 

Shamans also used drum rhythms, bells, chants, and special costumes and dances in healing rituals to help the patient reach a __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________.

According to the Bible Moses was instructed to teach the people a ______________ to serve as a memory aid. 288 full-time musicians were employed in the temple establishment to ____________________________________________________.

When an evil spirit troubled King Saul, what calmed and refreshed him?

The Babylonian priest-physicians used clappers and rattles to _________________ _______________________________.

In Egypt priests also were required to become both _______________________ and ___________________________.

Egyptian priest-physicians considered music to be "the __________of the _______".

Egyptians also believed music cast spells, that sounds symbolized other entities, and that each note had a particular magical force to ___________________________.


Priests of ancient India valued music for its mantra-mystic qualities and discovered that certain sequences of notes produced meditative states. They experimented and subtly refined these to achieve ___________________, a ________________________ ________.

What is a raga and what was it believed to promote?





The Greek god Apollo was both the god of ___________ and the god of _____________________.

According to the Greek doctrine of Ethos, music was a potent force interlocked with the system of nature that could affect an individual's ___________, ____________________and __________________.

p. 22 - 23

Describe how the Greek and Roman cultures viewed and used music.


In the Middle Ages special hymns were used as remedies for ____________ _______________________________________________.

p. 23 - 24

What was tarantism?


Describe how tarantellas were used to treat tarantism.







In the medieval view, disease was believed to be a punishment for sin. During the Renaissance musicians and physicians looked back to the classical Greek period and used the Greek view of health as a state of _______________ and disease as a state of ______________________.


The Baroque Era continued to provide a common meeting ground for music and medicine via a general philosophical orientation in medicine toward the theory of the __________________________________ and an emphasis in musical composition on the ability of music to arouse ______________________________________.

p.26 - 30

Outline the uses of music in medicine from the mid-eighteenth century through the present.