p. 113

Hearing impairment is a general or generic term that includes:




People who are deaf have___________________________ so severe that they cannot _______________________________________ through their

_________________, even with ______________________________

or ________________________________________________.


For deaf individuals, the sense of hearing is __________________ for the ordinary purposes and activities of _________________; sounds, including speech have

____________________________or __________________ for their day-to-day activities. for these individuals, sounds are not processed _____________________ but __________________ as _____________________ perceived

___________________________by the __________ and felt in the

_________________________. When individuals acquire this degree of severe hearing impairment after they have acquired _____________, they may be classified as ____________________ rather than deaf.


People are said to be hard-of-hearing or partially hearing when they have some _______________________________________________ but still have enough

_______________________ to _______________________________ and

__________________________________through their ____________________________________, with or without __________

_________________________________________. Although these individuals have some defect in their sense of hearing, they can still get enough ___________

___________________ from sounds that they can use their auditory sense for



By most estimates, at least ____% of individuals who have hearing impairments have some sensitivity to sound and some degree of usable or residual hearing.


Slight hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss

Mild hearing loss =  _____ - _____ dB loss

Moderate hearing loss =  _____ - _____ dB loss

Severe hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss

Profound hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss


Individuals with mild hearing losses can usually still understand _________

_________________________________ at a distance of ___________

______________; however, they may miss as much as _____________ of the conversation if they are not able to _______________________ or if the speaker's voice is ________. Individuals with mild hearing losses may also have some _____

__________________________ or a ______________________________.

p. 114

Persons with profound hearing losses tend to be aware of ________________ more than tonal patterns and rely on ____________ rather than hearing as their primary means of communication.


If an individual's hearing loss is present at birth, it is called a _______________ hearing loss. If the hearing loss occurs after birth, it is called an _____________

or ________________________ hearing loss. If the hearing loss occurs before the individual acquires or develops speech and language skills, it is called a __________

hearing loss. Hearing losses that occur after the individual acquires language are termed ________________ hearing losses.

There are two main dimensions to the sense of hearing:

    (1)_________________________________, measured in __________, and

    (2) __________________________________, which is related to _________

    ______________________ and is measured in _______________________.


In the process of hearing sound waves travel from a sound source to the listener, where they are collected by the outer ear and travel through the ear canal to the ear drum or ___________________________. The sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to _______________ and transmit the sound energy to the three small bones (____________) of the middle ear. These bones (hammer or ___________, anvil or ___________, and stirrup or __________ ) carry the sound waves to the

_______________ (______________), where delicate hair cells receive sensory information on the pitch or __________________ and loudness or ___________ of the sound signal. The auditory nerve then carries this information to the brain, where the signals are processed and interpreted.


The term hearing impairment usually implies that the hearing problem is ________________, while the term hearing loss is a general term that may describe either  a _____________ or ____________________ condition.


A conductive hearing loss occurs when there is some __________, __________________, or _______________________ in the outer to middle ear that interferes with the _____________________________________. This type of loss affects the ____________________________________ of the sound signal reaching the inner ear and usually results in a mild to moderately severe hearing loss across all ____________________________. Sometimes these losses respond to:

_____________________________________________________________. If medical treatment is not an option, conductive hearing losses usually can be at least partially corrected by _____________________________________________



A sensorineural hearing loss is caused by ________________________________

in the ___________________ or by __________________________________

___________________. Because of this damage, hearing may be faulty or nonexistent at certain _____________________.


What update was given in your classroom lecture about treating sensorineural hearing loss?

p. 115

A mixed hearing loss occurs when there is some degree of defect or damage _________________________________________________________



A central hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the brain or central nervous system. In these losses, sound waves are transmitted clearly and at adequate volume  through all the ear structures; however, the individual has difficulty _____________.

_______________________, or ___________________________________

because of damage or defects in some portion of his or her ___________________



 What is presbycusis?



p. 116

Depending on the type, severity, and onset of their hearing loss, individuals who have hearing impairments have various degrees of difficulty in:







Since most individuals who have hearing impairments must live and function within a hearing society, two of their biggest needs are:







p. 117

What do "smart" hearing aids filter out?


How do cochlear implants work?



What is the oral communication philosophy?



What is cued speech?


What is fingerspelling?



What types of communication are used in sign-supported speech or manual communication?


How is ASL different from Signed English, Signing Exact English, Seeing Essential English, and Linguistics of Visual English?



p. 118

What is total communication?



When capitalized, to what does the term Deaf refer?


The term Deaf is used on the basis of two characteristics:




What did Darrow's study find about differences between the ranking of importance of music between the Deaf culture and people who were considered hearing impaired  who identified with hearing culture?



p. 120

Why is music generally more accessible to individuals who have hearing impairments than are the sounds of speech?




How  is  functional hearing ability assessed using the Robbins-Robbins hearing perception test? 



What did May (1961) find could help stimulate the residual hearing of deaf children?



p. 120 - 121

Auditory training programs help individuals with hearing impairments learn to make maximum use of any ___________________________ they have, thus increasing their ability to become _____________, ________________, ________________,

and _______________________and __________________________________.


p. 121

Since the ___________________,___________________, and __________________ of ___________ are common to both speech and music, and since the perception of music and speech involves the discrimination of many similar characteristics (e.g., _____________________, ___________,_____________,

_______________, ________________________________, ______________

_____________ or ________________), music activities and experiences can be a valuable supplement to auditory training programs, helping to  _______________ the use of _________________________ and offering another way to practice



Objectives in auditory training programs include:






Music experiences are often very useful in the early stages of auditory training exercises because musical sounds have a wider ______________________ and

_________________than do speech sounds.


p. 122

Korduba found that deaf third-grade students could listen to rhythms presented on a bass drum and then reproduce these rhythms on a snare drum significantly better than


How did Buechler attempt to explain this phenomenon?


Music activities used in the auditory training program usually require individuals to:






Since  music and speech have many common elements, such as ______________and

________________, ________________ and __________, ____________ and

___________, and _____________, music activities often can be very useful in encouraging _______________ and in improving and reinforcing various aspects of

___________________________ with individuals who have hearing impairments.


Common treatment objectives in the area of speech production for individuals with hearing impairments include:









p. 123

Since the prosodic features of speech include many melodic elements (_________,

_________________, __________, and _________), group and individual singing experiences, vocal exercises, and private vocal instruction can all be structured to help individuals who have hearing impairments improve their vocal ________________,

_________________, ________, ________________, and _______________.

 p. 124

Typically, language development goals in music therapy for individuals with hearing impairments focus on one or more of the following areas:





p. 124 - 125

Music therapists structure music therapy interventions and sessions to continually encourage and reinforce interaction and communication, modeling appropriate uses of language and providing opportunities for clients to:





 p. 125 - 127

Outline the use of music therapy strategies to improve and reinforce social skills.










p. 127

When using musical instruments with individuals who have hearing impairments, it is important to consider how the acoustical properties of the instrument  (___________

______, ______________, _________________) correspond to the hearing abilities of the client who will play it.

p. 128

How can vocal work with individuals who have hearing impairments be facilitated?



What room arrangement considerations need to be examined when working with individuals with hearing impairments?




List contributors to noise-induced hearing damage.



In addition to hearing damage what other negative effects does a noisy environment cause?






From lecture, not from text:

In addition to the reference in your text, what other significant contributions did Claus Bang make to the field of music therapy with respect to his work with people with hearing impairments?