Hearing impairment is a general or generic term that includes:
People who are deaf have___________________________ so severe that they cannot _______________________________________ through their
_________________, even with ______________________________
For deaf individuals, the sense of hearing is __________________ for the ordinary purposes and activities of _________________; sounds, including speech have
____________________________or __________________ for their day-to-day activities. for these individuals, sounds are not processed _____________________ but __________________ as _____________________ perceived
___________________________by the __________ and felt in the
_________________________. When individuals acquire this degree of severe hearing impairment after they have acquired _____________, they may be classified as ____________________ rather than deaf.
People are said to be hard-of-hearing or partially hearing when they have some _______________________________________________ but still have enough
_______________________ to _______________________________ and
__________________________________through their ____________________________________, with or without __________
_________________________________________. Although these individuals have some defect in their sense of hearing, they can still get enough ___________
___________________ from sounds that they can use their auditory sense for
By most estimates, at least ____% of individuals who have hearing impairments have some sensitivity to sound and some degree of usable or residual hearing.
Slight hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss
Mild hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss
Moderate hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss
Severe hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss
Profound hearing loss = _____ - _____ dB loss
Individuals with mild hearing losses can usually still understand _________
_________________________________ at a distance of ___________
______________; however, they may miss as much as _____________ of the conversation if they are not able to _______________________ or if the speaker's voice is ________. Individuals with mild hearing losses may also have some _____
__________________________ or a ______________________________.
Persons with profound hearing losses tend to be aware of ________________ more than tonal patterns and rely on ____________ rather than hearing as their primary means of communication.
If an individual's hearing loss is present at birth, it is called a _______________ hearing loss. If the hearing loss occurs after birth, it is called an _____________
or ________________________ hearing loss. If the hearing loss occurs before the individual acquires or develops speech and language skills, it is called a __________
hearing loss. Hearing losses that occur after the individual acquires language are termed ________________ hearing losses.
There are two main dimensions to the sense of hearing:
(1)_________________________________, measured in __________, and
(2) __________________________________, which is related to _________
______________________ and is measured in _______________________.
In the process of hearing sound waves travel from a sound source to the listener, where they are collected by the outer ear and travel through the ear canal to the ear drum or ___________________________. The sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to _______________ and transmit the sound energy to the three small bones (____________) of the middle ear. These bones (hammer or ___________, anvil or ___________, and stirrup or __________ ) carry the sound waves to the
_______________ (______________), where delicate hair cells receive sensory information on the pitch or __________________ and loudness or ___________ of the sound signal. The auditory nerve then carries this information to the brain, where the signals are processed and interpreted.
The term hearing impairment usually implies that the hearing problem is ________________, while the term hearing loss is a general term that may describe either a _____________ or ____________________ condition.
A conductive hearing loss occurs when there is some __________, __________________, or _______________________ in the outer to middle ear that interferes with the _____________________________________. This type of loss affects the ____________________________________ of the sound signal reaching the inner ear and usually results in a mild to moderately severe hearing loss across all ____________________________. Sometimes these losses respond to:
_____________________________________________________________. If medical treatment is not an option, conductive hearing losses usually can be at least partially corrected by _____________________________________________
A sensorineural hearing loss is caused by ________________________________
in the ___________________ or by __________________________________
___________________. Because of this damage, hearing may be faulty or nonexistent at certain _____________________.
What update was given in your classroom lecture about treating sensorineural hearing loss?
A mixed hearing loss occurs when there is some degree of defect or damage _________________________________________________________
A central hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the brain or central nervous system. In these losses, sound waves are transmitted clearly and at adequate volume through all the ear structures; however, the individual has difficulty _____________.
_______________________, or ___________________________________
because of damage or defects in some portion of his or her ___________________
What is presbycusis?
Depending on the type, severity, and onset of their hearing loss, individuals who have hearing impairments have various degrees of difficulty in:
Since most individuals who have hearing impairments must live and function within a hearing society, two of their biggest needs are:
What do "smart" hearing aids filter out?
How do cochlear implants work?
What is the oral communication philosophy?
What is cued speech?
What is fingerspelling?
What types of communication are used in sign-supported speech or manual communication?
How is ASL different from Signed English, Signing Exact English, Seeing Essential English, and Linguistics of Visual English?
What is total communication?
When capitalized, to what does the term Deaf refer?
The term Deaf is used on the basis of two characteristics:
What did Darrow's study find about differences between the ranking of importance of music between the Deaf culture and people who were considered hearing impaired who identified with hearing culture?
Why is music generally more accessible to individuals who have hearing impairments than are the sounds of speech?
How is functional hearing ability assessed using the Robbins-Robbins hearing perception test?
What did May (1961) find could help stimulate the residual hearing of deaf children?
p. 120 - 121
Auditory training programs help individuals with hearing impairments learn to make maximum use of any ___________________________ they have, thus increasing their ability to become _____________, ________________, ________________,
and _______________________and __________________________________.
Since the ___________________,___________________, and __________________ of ___________ are common to both speech and music, and since the perception of music and speech involves the discrimination of many similar characteristics (e.g., _____________________, ___________,_____________,
_______________, ________________________________, ______________
_____________ or ________________), music activities and experiences can be a valuable supplement to auditory training programs, helping to _______________ the use of _________________________ and offering another way to practice
Objectives in auditory training programs include:
Music experiences are often very useful in the early stages of auditory training exercises because musical sounds have a wider ______________________ and
_________________than do speech sounds.
Korduba found that deaf third-grade students could listen to rhythms presented on a bass drum and then reproduce these rhythms on a snare drum significantly better than
How did Buechler attempt to explain this phenomenon?
Music activities used in the auditory training program usually require individuals to:
Since music and speech have many common elements, such as ______________and
________________, ________________ and __________, ____________ and
___________, and _____________, music activities often can be very useful in encouraging _______________ and in improving and reinforcing various aspects of
___________________________ with individuals who have hearing impairments.
Common treatment objectives in the area of speech production for individuals with hearing impairments include:
Since the prosodic features of speech include many melodic elements (_________,
_________________, __________, and _________), group and individual singing experiences, vocal exercises, and private vocal instruction can all be structured to help individuals who have hearing impairments improve their vocal ________________,
_________________, ________, ________________, and _______________.
Typically, language development goals in music therapy for individuals with hearing impairments focus on one or more of the following areas:
p. 124 - 125
Music therapists structure music therapy interventions and sessions to continually encourage and reinforce interaction and communication, modeling appropriate uses of language and providing opportunities for clients to:
p. 125 - 127
Outline the use of music therapy strategies to improve and reinforce social skills.
When using musical instruments with individuals who have hearing impairments, it is important to consider how the acoustical properties of the instrument (___________
______, ______________, _________________) correspond to the hearing abilities of the client who will play it.
How can vocal work with individuals who have hearing impairments be facilitated?
What room arrangement considerations need to be examined when working with individuals with hearing impairments?
List contributors to noise-induced hearing damage.
In addition to hearing damage what other negative effects does a noisy environment cause?
From lecture, not from text:
In addition to the reference in your text, what other significant contributions did Claus Bang make to the field of music therapy with respect to his work with people with hearing impairments?