ENGLISH 110: INTRODUCTION TO COLLEGE
Professor Bob Nowlan
Section 413, MW
10-11:50 and F 11-11:50 a.m., HHH 321
Fall 2003, UWEC
Office: HHH 425,
Office Hours: MWF 12 noon to 1 p.m. and By Appointment
Kelly Ford, Shane O’Gorman, and Joe Peeples,
Contact:email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; and
NOTE WELL: THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE COURSE
the Statement of Explanation of General Principles
The aim of this section of the course syllabus is to
provide not merely a description but rather an explanation, as well as
a justification, for how I conceive of and approach teaching this
course, and why so.
English 110 is an intensive, demanding, five-credit
introduction to "college writing." Although all sections of
English 110 share a broad set of common objectives, we who teach these
sections interpret meeting these objectives according to a range of
different conceptions of precisely what to teach, how to teach, and why
to teach. I (along with a number of my colleagues) teach English
composition to focus on argumentative writing, writing as critical
citizenship, writing as critical culture studies, writing as ideology
critique, writing as the cultivation of critical literacy in relation
to visual and audio-visual as well as verbal texts, and writing as
focused on engaging with and contributing toward the further
development of ongoing social struggles for progressive social change.
What This Means, in
Sum; The Importance of Writing Critically and of
Writing as Social
Engagement and Social Responsibility
What does this mean for what we will do together
this semester? In short, it means that I teach "college writing" as
writing designed to contribute actively, intelligently, and especially
critically toward what I contend constitutes the ultimately most
powerful and significant work carried out from within this social
institution, the higher educational "academy": that is, the production
and dissemination of advanced forms of knowledge that can enable
substantial progress in ongoing struggles for human emancipation,
collective equality, social justice, and ecological sustainability.
Who are “College
Writers”? College Writers, College Writing,
and Social Change
As I teach it, this course presents an opportunity
for you to learn how you can join the most serious and important
intellectual work of this institution, not simply as mere subordinates,
or as people only "passing through" on the way toward taking up your
real lives' work elsewhere, but rather as the potential co-equals of
university faculty. I conceive "college writers" to be men and
women who know and care about what is happening in the world, and who
strive to do what they can to make this world a better place, even when
and where the obstacles you confront in these efforts are great, and
when and where the freedom you enjoy to exercise genuinely democratic
rights in pursuit of these objectives is severely limited. In other
words, you learn to recognize and accept, to paraphrase the famous
words of Frederick Douglass, "that without struggle there can be no
I teach "Introduction to College Writing" to people
whom I approach not merely as "students," but also, much more
importantly, as human beings seeking to learn and understand, and to
act and interact-to intervene-by joining with and contributing to
ongoing struggles for urgently needed social change, change that
extends far beyond the limited confines of the classroom, the course,
or even the university. These are men and women who conceive of
college education as entailing a social responsibility, and who commit
themselves to do what they can, in practice, to meet this
"College writers" are therefore not, as I see it,
simply those men and women who have "mastered the rules," who have
"learned how to play the game," and who can, as such, write in
technically competent and skillful fashion sufficient to enable them to
"get by" in their college courses, and to obtain "good jobs"
afterward. "College writers" do not approach their writing as a
mere means of finding the best way to "fit in," "obey orders," submit
to authority, and conform to the dictates of those in dominant
positions of power. College writers are people who can, and as
necessary who will, fight this power–a power often deployed in the
interest of maintaining and reproducing relations of oppression,
exploitation, alienation, and dehumanization–and they are prepared to
do so with the critical and oppositional power that their own writing
Writing as a
Process of Thinking and a
Mode of Committed,
"College writers" conceive of writing not as a mere
"product" that displays what these women and men have thought, in an
"acceptable form," after the thinking is done, and after these writers
have self-censored anything that might "upset" or "disturb" anyone
else. On the contrary, college writers conceive of writing as a
process of thinking, and as a process, more precisely, of exploring,
inquiring, reflecting, interpreting, evaluating, expressing,
communicating, and of taking up and pushing forward positions to which
the writer can and does commit herself with sincerity, determination,
passion, and enthusiasm. College writers do not hesitate to
represent unpopular positions, and to advocate for these, when and
where they do maintain these positions, because these writers are men
and women who have not given way to the cynical and despairing
conviction that they are entirely powerless and inconsequential
(despite the abundant, often highly sophisticated ways that our
dominant capitalist culture inculcates us with this sense of our own
powerlessness and inconsequentiality). Instead, college writers
believe the issues their positions address are vitally important and
they have a right, as well as a responsibility, to make their voices
heard. These men and women are willing to risk provoking,
challenging, even alienating and offending their readers, when and
where it is right and necessary to do so–when and where, that is, the
issues at stake require it.
Writing with a
Purpose; Writing as Unity of Form and Content,
and of Text and
Context; and What it Means to
Think, Read, and
Writing is always intrinsically connected with
reading, thinking, feeling, speaking, and acting. What's more,
how we write always depends upon what we write, for whom we write, and,
especially, why we write. Writing can be taught as if it involved
merely a set of neutral skills and/or empty forms–and yet, in
actuality, the skills and forms that are so taught are neither neutral
nor empty of content; such formalist approaches in fact teach us to
develop, express, and communicate the kinds of thoughts and feelings in
the kinds of ways which serve to maintain and reproduce the interests
of dominant social groups without us understanding that this is what
they are doing.
It is, therefore, of crucial importance that writing
be taught as a unity both of form and content, and of text and
context. Writing is not merely form; forms never really exist
separate from contents. Neither is writing merely text; texts
never really exist separate from contexts. In this course, you will
learn how to read and write in ways that involve the uniting both of
form and content and of text and context. In particular, you will
learn how to do this by learning how to read and write–and to
think–critically. Learning to read and to write critically means
learning to proceed beyond merely describing the ways in which texts
work, toward explaining how and especially why–in particular, for
what–they work as they do. "Composition," in sum, is not
manipulation: it is construction, design, and creation. To learn
how to compose in written language is to learn how to express,
communicate, develop, and refine ideas, beliefs, thoughts, and feelings
of significance and urgency.
The Rhetoric and
Politics of Reading and Writing;
Writing to Persuade
In the process of learning to read and write
critically, it is necessary to focus particular attention upon both the
rhetoric and the politics of reading and writing. "Rhetoric"
refers to the art of using words effectively to express and communicate
thoughts and feelings in speaking and writing. In particular, you
will learn how to produce arguments capable either 1. of persuading
others to accept and/or identify with a particular position with which
they are not already previously in agreement, or 2. of compelling these
others to reformulate and rearticulate previously maintained positions
in response to the pressure your arguments have exerted upon their
previously maintained positions. "Politics" does not refer merely
to that which it is conventionally understood to refer–campaigning and
voting for election to legislative and executive positions in
government–but rather to the entire sphere of conflict and struggle, as
well as the regulation and adjudication of this conflict and struggle,
among individuals and social groups over right of access to, and
opportunity for the exercise of, natural and cultural resources,
powers, and capacities. The "politics of reading and writing"
refers to the ways in which the activities of reading and writing–and
the texts we read and write in the process of pursuing these
activities–are both affected by and in turn affect this conflict and
struggle over access to and exercise of resources, powers, and
capacities. Rhetoric focuses upon how writing is done: how to
make it as effective as possible so as to persuade or compel its
audience. Politics focuses upon what writing is designed to
persuade or compel its audience to do and why this writing is designed
to enable such ends and serve such interests.
Writing and Critical Citizenship
The ultimate goal of learning to write critically is
to enhance your ability to engage as a critical citizen. Critical
citizens are empowered agents able effectively to question, challenge,
and contribute toward the progressive transformation of the prevailing
status quo within the communities, societies, and cultures of which
they are a part. Argument is the most fundamental and indeed
indispensable means of discourse (i.e., social use of human language)
for all kinds of serious intellectual work and especially for all forms
of effectively critical citizenship. Argument is essential to
practices of inquiring and investigating, convincing and compelling,
persuading and moving, contesting and cooperating, and negotiating and
resolving. Therefore, this section of English 110 will focus on
education in argumentative writing. This does not mean we will
neglect "other kinds of writing," as effective argumentative writing
necessarily draws upon and incorporates all of the following subsidiary
writing practices: paraphrasing, summarizing, citing and quoting,
comparing and contrasting, analyzing and synthesizing, reporting and
informing, researching and investigating, reflecting and commenting,
imagining and inventing, describing and explaining, revising and
editing, and demonstrating and presenting. Moreover, we will also
continually address questions of grammar, usage, punctuation, and
mechanics over the course of the semester, but in this course you will
develop and improve your mastery of the rules and conventions of
Standard Written English by learning how and why mastery of these rules
and conventions will facilitate and strengthen the effectivity of your
arguments on issues of substantial social interest and concern. And, beyond all of this, you should note
well, in reviewing the schedule below, that we will begin the semester
with two weeks focused on issues of style, before turning directly
toward consideration of critical and argumentative reading and writing.
Teaching Against Fascism
In conclusion, I teach "college writing" as I do
because I do not want you, as my students, to leave this course
equipped simply, passively, to follow others' instructions in solving
others' problems without being able to question, challenge, and
critique the ways in which these others have conceived and articulated
these instructions, and these problems; I do not want you merely to
"fit in" and "take orders" as dupes of the rich, the strong, the elite,
and the powerful–I teach instead in direct opposition to education
which is designed to make you into good fascist subjects.
The following required
texts may be purchased at the UWEC Bookstore in Davies Center:
1. Crusius, Timothy W. and Carolyn E.
Channell. The Aims of
Argument: a Brief Guide. 4th Edition. New York:
2. Trimble, John R. Writing with Style: Conversations on the
Art of Writing. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000.
3. Griffith, Kevin, ed. The Common Courage Reader: Essays for an
Informed Democracy. Monroe, ME: Common Courage
4. Glassner, Barry. The Culture of Fear: Why Americans are
Afraid of the Wrong Things: Crime, Drugs, Minorities, Teen Moms, Killer
Kids, Mutant Microbes, Plane Crashes, Road Rage, & So Much More.
New York: Basic Books, 1999.
5. Orwell, George. 1984. 1949.
New York: Plume, 2003.
I expect every member of the class to obtain access
to a copy of each of these books. If you can find copies from
sources other than the UWEC Bookstore, at lower prices, fine, but, if
not, you should know I do not accept
any excuses for not expeditiously obtaining access to these
books. The cost of knowledge in a capitalist society can be quite
expensive, and different groups of people maintain different access to
it according to their relative socio-economic position; there is
ultimately no way around this fact other than to transform this society
as a whole into something fundamentally different. Until then,
however, you can expect that most institutions of higher education, at
least in the United States, will continue to require students
themselves to pay for textbooks, and not to include this cost as part
of what students pay in tuition. The relative cost of textbooks
at UWEC is considerably less than it was where I went to school as an
undergraduate, so I am not very sympathetic with complaints about this
matter. If you cannot afford to pay for your books, you need to
take time off from college, or before coming to college, to work
to earn the amount of money it takes to cover this expense.
You should also note well that I am asking you to
purchase a specific–new– edition of George Orwell’s 1984; this is the edition with
which we will be working. In addition, you should know that Larry
Everest’s Oil, Power, and Empire
has not yet been released in print by the publisher, but will be in
time for us to make use of this book at the end of the semester.
I will let you know when it is available.
I will supply copies of other required texts used in
the course in the form of photocopied handouts, weblinks, documents
posted on our Blackboard electronic classroom (which I will explain in
class before you first need to use it), and in other diverse forms,
such as electronic reserve. I will supply copies of films and
other audio-visual texts we will use this semester.
Students will be required to bring texts, especially
copies of your own writing, to class, from time to time, and will need
to take note of and respond to each others’ writings, and mentors’
comments/critiques, on our Blackboard electronic classroom website.
*** PLEASE NOTE WELL: ALL READING ASSIGNMENTS INDICATED IN THE SCHEDULE
BELOW ARE DUE AHEAD OF THE CLASS MEETINGS IN WHICH WE WILL DISCUSS
THESE READINGS. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BRINGING THE COURSE BOOK
OR BOOKS TO CLASS ON THE DAYS IN WHICH WE WILL BE DISCUSSING READINGS
FROM THIS BOOK OR THESE BOOKS. FAILURE TO DO SO WILL NEGATIVELY
AFFECT YOUR LEARNING AND CONTRIBUTION GRADE; STUDENTS WHO CONSISTENTLY
FAIL TO BRING THEIR
BOOKS TO CLASS, OR WHO FAIL TO COME PREPARED TO DISCUSS THE ASSIGNED
READINGS WILL SUFFER THE LOSS OF ONE FULL
LETTER GRADE PER UNIT. ***
F 8/29 Introduction and Orientation, Part 1.
W 9/3 Introduction and
Orientation, Part 2.
F 9/5 Discussion, Writing with Style: Chapters 1-2
(Thinking Well, Getting Launched), pp. 3-24.
Unit 1 Paper
Assigned (Autobiographical Essay)
M 9/8 Discussion, Writing with Style: Chapters 3-7
(Openers, Middles, Closers, Diction, Readability), pp. 25-81.
W 9/10 Discussion, Writing
with Style, Chapters 8-11 (Superstitions, How to Write a
Research-Based Analysis, Revising, and Proofreading), pp. 82-101, and
The Aims of Argument, Appendix (A Short Guide to Editing and
Proofreading), pp. A1-A18.
F 9/12 an M 9/15 Discussion, Writing
with Style, Chapter 12 (Punctuation), pp. 105-132.
M 9/15 and W 9/17 Discussion, Writing
with Style, Chapters 13-15 (Quoting, Abbreviations, Tips on
Usage) and Writers Talking Shop, pp. 133-159, 165-189.
W 9/17 and F 9/19 Discussion, The
Aims of Argument, Chapters 1-2 (Understanding an Argument,
Reading an Argument), pp. 3-52.
Unit 1 Paper Due
M 9/22 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader (“Myth:
Today’s Youth are the Worst Generation Ever” and “Born to be
‘Disruptive’: Diagnosing and Drugging America’s Children and Youth”),
pp. 22-50 and 61-82.
W 9/24 Discussion, The
Aims of Argument, Chapters 3-4 (Analyzing an Argument: a
Simplified Toulmin Method, Reading Visual Arguments), pp. 53-107.
F 9/26 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader, (“The
Invisible Threat,” and “Are You the One in Eight?”), pp.
190-200 and 224-228.
M 9/29 Discussion, Readings from The Aims of Argument, Chapters 6-7
(Writing to Inquire, Writing to Convince), pp. 161-249.
W 10/1 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader
(“Microsoft ‘Outcells’ Competition,” “‘Rent to Own’: the Slick Cousin
of Paying on Time,” and “The Ideology of Competitiveness: Pitting
Worker Against Worker”), pp. 137-143 and pp. 176-189.
F 10/3 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader (“A Tale
of Two Inner Cities”), pp. 143-160.
M 10/6 Discussion, The
Aims of Argument, Chapters 8-9 (Writing to Persuade,
Writing to Negotiate), pp. 250-339.
First Learning and
Contribution Reflection Paper Assigned
W 10/8 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader (“Of
‘Faggots’ and ‘Butch Dykes’ and Other ‘Unfit’ Children” and “From Tiny
Tim to Jerry Lewis: Charity and Economic Rights”), pp. 51-60 and
F 10/10 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader
(“Guatemala 1962 to 1980: a Less Publicized ‘Final Solution’,” and
Selections from Bridge of Courage:
Life Stories of the Guatemalan
Compañeros and Compañeras), pp.
M 10/13 Discussion, The
Aims of Argument, Chapter 5 ("Writing Research-Based
Arguments"), pp. 107-158.
First Learning and
Contribution Reflection Paper Due; Unit 2 Paper Assigned
(Argument and Research Paper)
W 10/15 Discussion, Readings from The Culture of Fear, Introduction
and Chapters 1-3, pp. xi-xxviii and 1-84.
Unit 3 Paper Assigned (Argument and Critique Paper)
F 10/17 Discussion, Readings from The Culture of Fear, Introduction
and Chapters 4-5, pp. 85-128.
M 10/20 Discussion, Readings from The Culture of Fear, Introduction
and Chapters 6-8, pp. 129-202.
W 10/22 Screening, Bowling
M 10/27 Discussion, Bowling
for Columbine and
Readings from The Culture of Fear,
Chapter 9, pp. 203-210.
W 10/29, F 10/31, and M 11/3 Presentation
and Discussion, Student Argument and Critique Papers (Unit 3
W 11/5 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader (“Media,
Knowledge, and Objectivity”; Selections from The Habits of a Highly Deceptive Media:
Decoding Spin and Lies in Mainstream News; and “Burning Books
Before They’re Printed”), pp. 92-105 and 115-124.
F 11/7 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader (“Women
ARE the News: Super Bowl Success Sparks Good Ol’ Boys’ Backlash,” and
Just a Cartoon”),
pp. 106-114 and 129-136.
M 11/10 Discussion, Readings from The Common Courage Reader (“School
Days, Rule Days” and “The Devil in the Details: How the Christian
Right’s Vision of Political and Religious Opponents May Lead to
Religious Warfare”), pp. 248-265.
11/12 Discussion, 1984,
Foreword and Part One, pp. vii-xxvi and 1-106.
Debate Topic and Unit 4
Paper (Debate Paper) Assigned
F 11/14 and M 11/17 Discussion, 1984,
Part Two, pp. 107-230.
W 11/19 Discussion, 1984,
Part Three and Afterword, pp. 231-337.
F 11/21, M 11/24, and W 11/26 Screening and Discussion,
W 11/26 Unit 2 Paper
(Argument and Research Paper) Due
M 12/1 and W 12/3 Screening and Discussion, Film
Versions of 1984.
F 12/5 and M 12/8 Planning and Preparation, Class
F 12/5 Second
Contribution Reflection Paper Assigned
W 12/10 Class Debate
F 12/12 Conclusion.
M 12/15 Second
and Contribution Reflection Paper Due
W 12/17 Unit 4
Paper (Debate Paper) Due
*** Due Dates for Revisions of First
and Third Unit Papers will be Announced in Class. ***
***** THIS SCHEDULE
IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE *****
THE GOALS OF THE UWEC BACCALAUREATE
This university is a liberal arts institution;
education in the liberal arts (and sciences) represents the historic
and central commitment of what we do together on this UW campus-not
vocational training and pre-professional development. Our
university administration and faculty support this commitment so
strongly that they have asked that all syllabi elaborate the official
goals of the baccalaureate, as well as identify which ones the course
in question will help you achieve. According to the UWEC
administration, the baccalaureate degree shall work to develop the
following for UWEC students:
1.) an understanding of a liberal education.
2.) an appreciation of the University as a learning community.
3.) an ability to inquire, think, analyze.
4.) an ability to write, read, speak, listen.
5.) an understanding of numerical data.
6.) a historical consciousness.
7.) international and intercultural experience.
8.) an understanding of science and scientific methods.
9.) an appreciation of the arts.
10.) an understanding of values.
11.) an understanding of human behavior and human institutions.
UWEC strives to help you meet these objectives in
the course of the higher education you pursue here. Please note
that in making these our foremost aims, we at UWEC clearly distinguish
ourselves from technical colleges as well as from all other UW schools,
especially places like Stout, River Falls, and Stevens Point.
English 110, Introduction to College Writing aims to help contribute to
you meeting goals 1-4 and 10-11.
These goals cannot be met passively by the student:
each requires your striving toward it to be met. Striving means
learning actively, completing assignments in a thorough and timely
fashion, participating in class discussion, and making connections
(above and beyond those emphasized by us in the classroom) between what
we do while meeting in class and what you do when engaged outside of
One of the means UWEC has of assessing how effective
the students and faculty have been in meeting these goals is the
Baccalaureate Portfolio. I will supply more information about the
Portfolio as the semester proceeds, but you should know now that you
should save copies of papers you write, including in this class, to
include in this Portfolio. Before graduation you will submit this
portfolio of papers (or other kinds of research projects) to assessors,
who will use them to see how effective the university has been in
achieving the goals of the Baccalaureate. Keep in mind that when
the committee reads the papers, your name will be removed; your
anonymity will be preserved throughout the evaluation process.
The university is measuring its own effectiveness, not yours. At
the same time, however, many departments also mandate that majors (and
sometimes minors as well) turn in portfolios as required parts of their
final work in fulfilling the requirements of that major (or minor), so
it is advisable to start keeping copies of your papers. Not only
this, but employers and graduate schools often find portfolios
useful in evaluating your qualifications for employment or
admission. So, in sum, somewhere along the line people will
expect you to show that you are making progress here not only by
obtaining credits and passing grades, but also by doing competent and
effective work, as well as by drawing connections among the many
courses you take as part of the development of a coherent overall
liberal arts program of study.
ON INTELLECTUAL CHALLENGES, ACADEMIC
The English Department would like to call your
attention right away to one key difference between high school and
college. In short, at this institutional level we will
consistently address and treat you as adults, not children. Our
aim as such is to provide you with an intellectually challenging
education. This means we will often include texts and introduce
topics in our courses that may well run sharply counter to your
preconceived understanding, based upon high school experience, of what
is and is not “appropriate” for direct engagement in class. We
will, in short, candidly explore adult texts and topics, including ones
offering representations that may, on occasion, prove unsettling,
disturbing, and even offensive to some of you.
The higher educational academy is not a “safe space”
separate from the rest of the “real world” where you can expect to be
sheltered from encountering anything you might find disagreeable or
objectionable. On the contrary, we expect you to take up the
challenge to confront these kinds of texts and topics in a mature,
responsible way, and that means bringing directly to bear your negative
reactions-including your reactions of shock, dismay, and discontent-in
class discussions and in your writings and presentations for
class. If you find a position or practice represented by a text
or topic included in the assigned readings or screenings for class to
be objectionable, it is therefore of crucial importance that you raise
your objections openly and honestly, not simply claim personal
exemption from having to see, hear, or talk, read, and write about
these kinds of matters. After all, disturbing positions and
practices exist extensively outside of the classroom as well as in what
we read, see, hear, and otherwise confront in and for class; what we
confront in class exists in this institutional space as symptomatic of
positions and practices that operate beyond the confines of the
classroom, the course, and the university. If and when you find
any text or topic genuinely appalling, you maintain the
ethical responsibility, as a mature adult and as a responsible citizen,
not simply to try to hide from these positions and practices but rather
to work to critique and change them.
Students should expect therefore that you may well
on occasion encounter representations that you will find troubling, in
this UWEC course and in many others as well; within this Department you
will receive no right of exemption from engaging with these and no
welcome for simply complaining (especially to a higher administrative
authority) about their inclusion. Instead you should bring your
objections forthrightly to bear in your contributions to class
discussion. Finally, to conclude this particular point of
discussion, a professor differs from a high school teacher in many
respects, but one key difference is that we maintain a principal
professional, ethical responsibility forthrightly to represent the most
advanced knowledges in our fields of expertise and to proceed from
there to work toward their further development and
dissemination. In short, we must create, advocate for, and
profess these knowledges; you should expect that your professors may
from time to time take strong and indeed controversial positions on
difficult and challenging issues, eschewing the pretense of
disinterested neutrality. To do anything less than assume this
responsibility, and to do so with alacrity, would be to shirk our
professorial responsibility and to render ourselves unworthy of
maintaining our professorial positions.
MY STAKE IN TEACHING AS I DO
As I see it, college is not, in actuality, a
separate world unto itself: college is not "an ivory tower." On
the contrary, college is an integral part of a larger society–even when
this does not readily appear to be the case. College always
serves specific interests and needs of this larger society. Every
college should always strive to be a vital part of the local, regional,
national, and international communities in which it is situated, and
the college teacher should always teach with this is mind. The
knowledge concentrated within the higher educational academy does not
exist in a vacuum, and it should not be taught as if it did so
exist. Knowledge therefore should always be taught and learned in
terms of how and for what it can be socially useful.
I believe that the knowledges and skills students
gain from college study should serve as more than merely means to the
acquisition of a degree and to the increase in wealth, status, and
power that this degree can help obtain. Students do hear and read
and talk about major social and political problems quite often, yet
they also frequently tend to think of these as problems which are
beyond their capability significantly to influence. I aim to show
my students that they do not need to accept this sense of their own
insignificance and powerlessness. I believe, on the contrary,
that you can begin to make a difference in the positions you take up
and in the practices you pursue, every day, within even the most
immediate of the local communities in which you participate.
As I see it, any serious intellectual, working as a
professor at the university level, should be open with her students
about her stance on the issues she addresses in teaching the texts and
topics that she does. In other words, he should have ideas of his
own which he represents to his students and he should be accountable to
his students for where he is coming from, how, and why. In making
my positions clear and being open about them, trusting and respecting
you as capable of dealing with these for what they are, I am inviting
contestation and I am making it all the less likely that I might in any
way "deviously" "manipulate" your own thinking. Teachers who
pretend to maintain a position of "disinterested neutrality" in
relation to the texts and topics they teach are, in contrast, those who
are far more likely to be deviously manipulative, because it is in fact
impossible to be genuinely disinterested about social issues that shape
and determine who and what we are all about, and it is also likewise
impossible to remain effectively neutral in relation to ongoing social
struggles over how to conceive and engage with these issues.
All education is political, and this includes
education that claims to be apolitical–that is, to be above and beyond,
or indifferent to and unconcerned about politics. The supposedly
apolitical classroom in fact supports the maintenance and reproduction
of the status quo because it does nothing to question, challenge,
critique, and work to change this status quo. If I were to teach
this way, I would teach in direct opposition to my own foremost
principled convictions. In effect I would be doing either one of
two things that I simply cannot and will not, in good conscience,
do. Either I would pretend to be a mainstream conservative who is
satisfied that "the way things are is the way they should be," or I
would accept the despairing conclusion that nothing can be done to
change any of this, that I am essentially powerless and
inconsequential, and that I should cynically simply "do what I have to
do to take care of myself" by merely "going along" with mainstream
conservative commonsense in order to "get along" with those who
exercise dominant positions of institutional and social power. I
refuse to do either of these things; I must stand up for what I believe
At the same time, I always seek to do justice to
positions different from, and opposing, my own–to my mind no other
stance is intellectually, ethically, or politically responsible–and I
welcome, in fact encourage, my students always to feel free to disagree
with, argue against, and critique the positions I maintain. I do not
seek to "persuade" my students to accept and identify with "my"
positions so much as to "compel" you to rethink, reformulate, and
rearticulate your previously maintained positions in response to the
pressure my arguments, those of your classmates, and those advanced in
the texts we will read and the films we will screen exert upon those
previously maintained positions. If you agree with me, or find yourself
"persuaded" to agree with me, so be it, but that is not my principal
objective in openly representing "my own" positions in my pedagogical
interaction with you. In short, I want you to think, rigorously and
critically, for yourself, and to question all authorities, including
me. In the courses I teach no position is ever simply unwelcome and
excluded out of hand. I maintain a commitment at all times to free and
open inquiry and to critical–including self-critical–examination,
reflection, and exchange. Students are judged not on what positions
they hold and support but rather on how well they argue and account for
these and how well they do so by engaging seriously with other
positions represented by myself, by other students, and by the writers
and film makers we meet.
Likewise, I encourage you to speak and write
forthrightly in relation to every position, issue, and text we address
this semester; you certainly should never simply pretend to agree with
anything unless you truly do so. I want, in this light, here to
emphasize what Kevin Griffith, editor of The Common Courage Reader (one of
our required textbooks this semester), writes in his “Introduction for
All of the
readings here are written by people passionately committed to improving
our society. What you are about to read is truly writing with a
purpose–whether that purpose is to expose the dark side of capitalism,
the way power and wealth control the media, or the way our own
government terrorizes its own citizens and the citizens of neighboring
nations. The purpose of The
Common Courage Reader is not to indoctrinate you into any
particular way of thinking, but to provide an antidote to the culture
we are all a part of, a culture that promotes political passivity and
apathy. We live in a society where others who have more wealth
and power will gladly do our thinking for us–unless we choose to think
critically for ourselves. (3)
I insist upon maintaining a certain amount of
discipline and order in how I organize and conduct my classes, and I
think this is in fact necessary for students to be "free" to learn
effectively from me, from the texts we read in and for class, and from
each other. This also means that I do not pretend that I as
teacher–and especially as a doctor and a tenured professor–occupy the
same institutional or cultural position as my students. I do not
try to hide or deny the fact that I am called upon to exercise
authority in the course and in the classroom. I do not seek to protect
myself from student contestation and therefore am upfront about the
fact that I am the teacher and am called upon to exercise
authority. I account for my authority in terms of how–and
especially for what–I use it. I likewise believe that the
classroom in which the teacher denies and disowns her authority is more
likely to be the classroom in which the teacher abuses her authority
since this latter kind of classroom allows the teacher to conceal the
fact that she does exercise authority and thereby protects her use of
this authority from being questioned and challenged.
THE FIRST-YEAR EXPERIENCE PROGRAM
This section of English 110 is
one of a large number of first-year experience program courses taught
across the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. The goals of
these courses are as follows:
1.) To introduce students to liberal education and to awaken
2.) To enhance skills needed for academic success: reading, writing,
speaking, listening, thinking, inquiry, analysis, use of information
technology, library skills, and time management.
3.) To strengthen students’ connection to the University.
4.) To engage students in meaningful academic and non-academic
5.) To enhance students’ accountability for their education.
In order to assist us in meeting these goals,
first-year experience program courses are limited in enrollment to a
relatively much lower maximum number of students than you will
encounter in most, if not all, of the other courses in which you will
enroll over the course of your first year at this university.
This relatively smaller class size will enable more extensive and
inclusive discussion in class as well as greater opportunity for me to
work with you individually and in small groups outside of class.
At the same time as maximum enrollment is limited to
a relatively low number of students, all first-year experience program
courses also have senior student mentors who work with course
instructors to help you make a successful transition to the life of a
student at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. In this
section of English 110, your senior student mentors are Chris Duerkop,
Kelly Ford, Shane O’Gorman, and Joe Peeples. These people will
help evaluate your contribution to the course, especially in the form
of your Blackboard papers, and other postings. They will work
together with me as well to help you on diverse matters of curricular
and extracurricular interest and concern, and they will be responsible,
in consultation with me, for organizing a series of extracurricular
class outings and workshops for us to participate in as a class.
Further details concerning these activities will be forthcoming as the
semester proceeds. Chris, Kelly, Shane, and Joe will also each
hold regular weekly office hours at times and places where it
will prove convenient to meet with you; these will be determined after
surveying your schedules early this semester. You are required to
attend as many of these extracurricular activities and events as
possible. You will be given credit for doing so.
I encourage you to meet with me in conference during
office hours or at another mutually convenient time to discuss any
issue of interest or concern related to what we are doing in this
course. Learning that takes place in conferences can at times be
equally as important, and in fact occasionally even more important,
than what takes place in class. Please do not hesitate to meet
with me during office hours or to ask for an appointment at any time
you think this might be helpful; I regard making myself available for
conferences with you outside of class to be an indispensable part of my
responsibility as your teacher. Moreover, I always
sincerely do welcome getting to know and work with my students outside
as well as inside of class. I am ready to do whatever I can
to help you in your understanding of issues addressed in discussions,
readings, and screenings, as well as to help you in your writing for
and participation in this course. I want to make sure that I do
all that I can to help you succeed in this course and I want to help
you, as far as I can, to gain as much out of it as possible through
your participation in and work for it. You may also feel
free to write me via e-mail, and to call me–or leave a message for me
on the answering machine–at my office. I enjoy meeting and
working with students outside as well as inside of class; I really
do. I would rather talk with you during my office hours than do
anything else, so please do not worry about “disturbing” me in coming
to talk with me; my office hours are time that I have set aside to
meet, talk, and work with you. PLEASE DO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS
OPPORTUNITY! And, remember, once again, taking the time to meet
and talk with me periodically in conference is a great way to
contribute to the class. Likewise, please keep in mind that
Chris Duerkop, Kelly Ford, Shane O’Gorman, and Joe Peeples are joining
this class as senior student mentors to help you; seek them out and
take advantage of their assistance. These people will all
hold regular weekly office hours, at times and places to be announced,
and can meet with you at other times and places as well, by appointment.
THE WRITING CENTER
The Writing Center, located in HHH 385, provides
free tutoring for students enrolled in English 099, 110, and 112.
The Center is open from 9:00 a.m.- 3:00 p.m. Monday through Thursday,
and 9:00 a.m.- Noon on Friday (from September to May). You
should contact English Department Program Assistant Jude Agema
(836-2644) to arrange to work with a tutor on an ongoing basis or to
find out about the Center's available walk-in hours.
Do not hesitate to consult a tutor about even a
relatively "minor" area of question, concern, or difficulty, and go to
the Center to start working with a tutor, should you decide that you
need this extra help, as early in the semester as possible–the earlier
you go, the sooner you will be able to work with a tutor and the sooner
you will be able to make progress. Please note well, however,
that a tutor will never do your work for you. An effective
tutor will facilitate your work by providing careful guidance without
being directive. For more information about tutoring and related
assistance, see the Writing Center webpage:
ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCT OF CLASS SESSIONS
Class will proceed according to a variety of
discussion formats. I will, from time to time, make short,
relatively informal presentations (and even perhaps somewhat longer and
less informal ones on rare occasion, as need be). Yet, for the
overwhelmingly majority of class time, I plan directly to involve you
in actively participating as part of the work of educating both
yourself and the rest of the class through what you have to say as well
as share with us in written form. I want you to work with me in
learning; I always find people tend to learn better, at least in this
kind of class, this way rather than by remaining quiet and taking notes
during the course of long lectures. Many times you will be
working in groups in class, and many times you will be sharing your
writing with the rest of the class, either prepared before class meets,
or during class time itself. At other points, you will be asked
to do some relatively simple research and bring the results of this
research to class to share with the rest of us. You will also be
working outside of class in groups–to prepare for the class debate,
and, most likely, on other occasions as well. In addition, we
will from time to time refer to your postings and discussions on our
Blackboard electronic classroom while meeting and talking together in
class. Throughout this process, and in all of these projects and
discussion formats, your mentors and I will help you in every way we
possibly can. We want you to succeed.
I will maintain ultimate responsibility, authority,
and control for the direction of our class discussions, and the mentors
will also maintain considerable secondary responsibility, authority,
and control (as de facto teaching assistants), yet we will all do our
best to make sure we hear extensively from everyone else. I
recognize and respect that the students enrolled in this class
represent considerable differences in prior knowledge, experience,
training, work, or other preparation versus the diverse subjects we
will engage, as well as versus the kinds of skills that the course will
require. Likewise I well know, and understand, that students
differ considerably in terms of how more versus less inclined as well
as more versus less comfortable they feel in speaking as part of class
discussions. Yet I expect that these differences, along with
differences in social, cultural, economic, political, and ideological
ascriptions, affiliations, and commitments, all will be brought to the
fore so that each member of the class can contribute to its success
from both where she is at and toward where he aspires to be.
GENERAL EXPECTATIONS OF STUDENTS
While I am providing you an elaborate framework to
direct our work together, I firmly believe that the success of any
course I teach depends as much–if not often in fact much more–on what
my students bring and give to the process of learning as what I
do. I see college teaching and learning as a collective project
and this means its success–or failure–depends upon the degree and kind
of commitment and the quantity and quality of contribution of everyone
involved. Some of the best teachers with whom I have ever worked
have insisted that they do not teach their students as much as they
teach their students how to teach themselves. Even if this
overstates the case, I do think that it is impossible to teach someone
who does not sincerely want and who does not assiduously strive to
learn. I will always work equally hard and equally seriously to
help students who demonstrate this kind of effort succeed, both within
my courses and beyond.
expect you to approach this course as a course that you sincerely want
to take, and in which you sincerely want to learn. I
expect you to work hard in this course and to approach this course with
both diligence and enthusiasm. I expect you to become, and to remain,
interested in the subject matter of the course as an end in itself and
not merely as a means to achieve a grade and five credits.
expect you to be actively engaged in class discussion, in an
intellectually serious manner. Some students prefer
courses in which teachers simply tell them what is right, what is true,
and everything that these students are supposed to do, so that the
students need merely repeat all of this back to their teachers to
obtain a good grade while not expending much of any intellectual energy
or demonstrating virtually any genuine intellectual growth. This
is definitely not that kind of course, and if you approach your work in
and for this section of English 110 as a passive learner you will do
If you experience problems at any point over the course of the
semester I expect you to contact me right away and discuss these
forthrightly with me; I am ready to do whatever I can to help
you if and when you experience problems in this course, or elsewhere,
as long as you are candid and sincere, but I can't help if you are not
upfront about what's going on and if you don't level with me. I
am a compassionate as well as a passionate person, so don't hesitate to
talk with me about problems if and when you experience them; we can
work past many of these, if you contact me in time and if we work
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE
In evaluating all work done for this course, I will
take account of how carefully, seriously, intelligently,
enthusiastically, and imaginatively students engage with the concepts,
issues, positions, and arguments addressed in the course and
represented by the texts we read, the films we screen, by me, by the
mentors, and by each other.
This course cannot contribute
effectively to students' learning if students do not attend
class. What happens in class is an indispensable part of
this course. Therefore, the following attendance policy will apply for
students enrolled in this section of English 110:
1.) Students who exceed a maximum of two unexcused absences will suffer a
penalty of a loss of one full letter
grade for each additional unexcused absence.
2.) Students should provide the instructor with
written confirmation of a debilitating injury or illness, or of any
other serious individual or family emergency, for the acceptance of any
further absences beyond the maximum of two unexcused absences.
3.) In addition to the maximum of
two unexcused absences, students may miss a maximum of three excused absences without
suffering a grade penalty. Six total
absences will result in a loss of two full letter grades.
Students who miss more than six classes total should withdraw from the
course and enroll again in a subsequent semester; otherwise they will
receive a grade of F.
Contribution Reflection Papers
This is and Why it is Important
My foremost aim in teaching this course is to help
you to learn something of significance and value. I will judge
you to a significant degree on what you learn, how- and how hard-you
strive to learn, and on how-along with how well-you contribute to the
learning for the rest of the class.
You cannot learn or help others learn if you do not
contribute. If you don't contribute to the work of this class not only
will you fail to derive as much gain from it as would be the case if
you did contribute, but also you will deprive everyone else of the
benefit of your thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values, knowledge, and
experience. In fact, to remain passively silent in class exploits the
work of others who actively engage.
Class participation represents an important
opportunity to learn, not just a place in which to demonstrate what you
have learned. By raising questions, testing and trying out ideas,
taking risks and making mistakes, you learn a great deal-and help
others learn a great deal as well. You learn through talking, not just
talk to show what you have learned. Don't hesitate to speak forth
in class if you have anything at all to throw into the mix.
At the same time, just talking a great deal does not
necessarily mean that you are making a quality contribution to the
class by aiding the learning that we aim to accomplish. Quality of
participation is much more important than quantity, although a
sufficient quantity is indispensable to insure quality. Still, I want to emphasize here that I
perceive talking for talking’s sake–especially talking which pulls us
off on far-fetched tangents, which remains disconnected from and
disengaged with the reading and the rest of the class, or which
effectively silences others–to be negative participation.
Quality class participation does not, moreover,
involve merely asking questions of me and responding to my questions;
quality class participation requires you to work as assiduously as you
can to advance a serious and substantial discussion with your peers as
well as with the mentors and me about the texts and topics subject to
discussion. Students should, therefore, be prepared to engage with and
respond to each other in class discussion, and I will take particular
note of how well you do so.
I would like you to come to class with strong
opinions on the topics of discussion, to be ready to share your
opinions with the class, and to be open-minded enough to debate your
own and others’ thoughts and to push them as far as they will go.
In evaluating class participation, I find the
following modification of a system designed by my colleague, Professor
Mary Ellen Alea, useful: A = Nearly daily response, and with
consistently useful, insightful comments and questions; B= Daily
response, with regular, relevant comments and questions; C = Less
frequent, occasional questions and comments; D = Almost always entirely
quiet; F= Engaging in behavior that disrupts the learning processes of
you and your fellow students, such as talking while others are
speaking, not paying attention in class, or doing other work or
attending to other interests during the time class is meeting.
Forms of Contribution
Contribution to the class certainly can extend far
beyond mere speaking in class: it may include a variety of ways in
which you can bring to bear your insights to help yourself as well as
the rest of us gain from the experience of this course.
Excellent writings for and in response to class (on Blackboard,
see below) and as part of your learning and contribution reflection
papers (see below as well) can help make up for limitations as far as
participation in class goes. At the same time, listening
carefully, respectfully, and thoughtfully in class discussions is an
important contribution to class as well.
Learning and Contribution Reflection Papers/Learning and Contribution Reflection Grades
Learning and contribution will constitute a
significant proportion of your overall course grade. As
part of this grade, you will write two
learning and contribution reflection papers. For these papers I
will ask you questions that will require you to sum up what, most
significantly, you have been learning as a student enrolled in this
course, and to assess how, along with how well, you have been
contributing to your own learning, and to that of others in the class.
As I see it, these papers provide you a useful
opportunity to communicate with me how you believe you are doing with
the course, as well as why so, and to demonstrate your critical
self-reflexivity, the hallmark of a liberal arts education. As
you are assessing your own learning and contribution, you may include
thoughts in reaction to issues raised in class discussion that you did
not have the opportunity or did not feel comfortable enough to share in
class; these additional reflections will help me get a better sense of
what you have been thinking about and how you have been responding to
class discussions, as well as to the readings. I will take into
account what you write in determining your learning and contribution
grade for the preceding semester period; performance on these papers
represents a vital component of your learning and contribution grade.
I will provide you specific directions in the
assignments I give you for each of these papers; please note well that
the questions you address will change from the first to the second
reflection paper. These papers should be typed, double-space, on
single sides of standard white letter-sized (8" X 11")
typewriter, computer printer, or photographic paper. All pages
should be numbered, and you should place your name at the top of each
page. You may use any standard font you wish, yet you should keep
your point size between 10 and 12 points. Papers must be stapled,
and you are responsible for doing so, not me. You should follow
all rules and conventions of Standard Written English and MLA
format for citation and documentation of sources.
I recommend an approximate target range of between 1250 and 1750 words (roughly 5-7
The first learning and contribution grade (including
the first learning and contribution reflection paper) will be worth 12.5% of the overall course
grade. The second learning and contribution grade (including the
second learning and contribution reflection paper) will be worth 17.5% of the overall course grade.
Near the beginning of unit one students will be assigned
to write an autobiographical paper.
During the course of unit two students will be assigned
to write an argument and research paper.
students will prepare copies of their papers (an argument and
critique paper) based upon the reading for that unit to present to
their fellow classmates for critique.
Each of these first three unit papers will ask
students to demonstrate proficiency in working with concepts and
practices discussed during the preceding unit, and in the case of the
third of these papers to engage directly with specific arguments
advanced in the reading carried out as part of this unit.
For unit four students
will be asked to write a paper reflecting upon their own, as well as
their classmates’, preparation for and participation in the class
debate. This paper will also allow students to flesh out and
develop their own individual thoughts, as well as arguments, in
relation to the topic of the debate.
Specific details of each of these assignments will
be announced and explained in class.
In addition to the above papers, students will be
asked to revise their unit one
paper (the autobiographical papers)
twice in response to my comments and critiques.
Students will also revise the third unit paper once in response to their
classmates’ comments and critiques.
All papers should be typed, double-space, on single
sides of standard white letter-sized (8" X 11") typewriter, computer
printer, or photographic paper. You may use any standard font you
wish but your print size must remain between 10 and 12 points.
Pages should be numbered, and your name should be at the top of the
first page. The pages of your paper must be stapled together and
you are responsible for doing so; I do not bring staplers to class.
You are also responsible for proofreading your paper
before you turn it in; if you catch any typographical errors, you
should neatly cross these out and write your corrections on top of
these with a pen (but not a pencil).
I will expect you, furthermore, to observe all the
rules and conventions of Standard Written English to the very best of
your ability in writing each of these papers, including MLA format for
citation and documentation of sources.
I strongly advise you to take time to plan out your
paper before writing it, and to write, and then revise and edit, at
least one rough draft before preparing the version you turn in to me
for a grade. Be prepared for
me to ask that you give me copies of your pre-writing notes and/or
outlines, as well as your edited rough drafts in relation to any and/or
all of these papers. Failure to produce all of these materials
when asked will result in the loss of one full-letter grade.
Your mentors and I, as well as tutors in the Writing
Center are all available to help you as you work on these papers.
The initial finished version of your first
unit paper, the autobiographical essay, will be worth 0% of the overall course
grade. You should aim to turn in a paper covering an approximate
target average of 1250 to 1750 words
(roughly 5-7 double-space pages). The first revision, taking into
account and responding to my recommendations for revision, will be
worth 10% of
the overall course grade. The second revision will be worth an
additional 5% of the overall
grade. Note well that your revision assignments may require
you to expand the length of this paper.
unit paper, the argument and research paper, will be worth 15% of the overall course
grade. You should aim to turn in a paper covering an approximate
target average of 2000 to 3000 words
(roughly 8-10 double-space pages).
unit paper (the first argument and critique paper), will be worth 5% of the overall course grade, and
again should aim for approximately 1250
to 1750 words. The revision
of your third unit paper will also be worth 5% of the overall course grade.
Your grade for your participation in the unit four debate will be 7.5% of the overall course
grade. Your debate paper will be worth an additional 7.5% of the overall course grade, and
here you should aim again for a paper of approximately 1250 to 1750
Students will be asked to post short
papers every two weeks on a Blackboard electronic classroom website
that I have
prepared for this class. I will explain how to access this site
and where to post, as well as retrieve, papers (and other information
All students must do this eight times during the semester, four times for units one and two of
the course, and four times for units
three through five of the course.
Students will post
two papers each time (*** so in fact you
will write a total of eight papers in the first half of the semester,
and eight in the second half of the semester, even though you will only
receive four paper assignments in each half of the semester ***).
The first paper will address
or set of questions related to the course as well as your transition to
college life and life. Some weeks I will prepare this assignment;
some weeks the mentors will do so. The second paper will respond to or
critique at least one fellow student’s initial paper (it may respond to
or critique aspects of a number of classmates’ initial papers).
The mentors will enter into dialogue with you in
relation to what you write in these papers. I will take
account of the mentors’ recommendations in grading you on your
performance for these assignments, where I will be looking for
seriousness of effort and initiative as well as careful thought and
The papers here are semi-formal,
meaning that we will not be sticklers for stylistic perfection, yet you
should try always to express yourself and communicate to the rest of us
as clearly and cogently as possible.
These papers will give you a chance to test out and
explore ideas, as well as to raise questions and engage in extended,
serious conversations outside of class time, especially in relation to
the mentors and your peers in the class. For those who are
relatively quiet in class this is a great opportunity to show me, and
the mentors, that you are n fact paying careful attention and are
well-prepared and seriously involved.
You should aim for approximately 500 to 750 words in length, as a
rough average, with each and every one of your Blackboard papers.
Your Blackboard papers for units one to two will be worth a
total of 7.5% of the overall
course grade, while your Blackboard papers for units three through five will be
worth a total of 7.5% of the
overall course grade.
You will receive extra credit for participating in
first-year experience program outings
and workshops that the mentors and I will arrange for this
course. The mentors and I will likely also recommend that you
attend various extra-curricular events
on campus, and ask that you prepare a short reflection paper in
response to what you experienced in attending each event. You may
earn up to 10% extra credit
for participating in the workshops and outings, and up to 10% additional extra credit for
attending and writing satisfactory reflections on extra-curricular
events. This is not just extra credit, however: if you do not participate regularly in
workshops, outings, and extra-curricular events I will actually reduce
your overall course grade, by one full letter grade. It is
important, and the University expects it, that you will take full
advantage of the opportunities enrollment in a first-year experience
program class provides. I do not ask you to participate in a
definite quantity of these first-year experience program activities, as
I am much more interested in quality than quantity, and I do not want
students approaching this as simply a task that you should seek to
accomplish by merely going through the motions such that you merely
seek to reach a total of number of occasions where you put your body in
a place the mentors and I recommend. The spirit of engagement is
the key here.
Late learning and contribution reflection papers, as
well as late unit papers, will lose
1/3 of a letter grade per day late unless you have made
arrangements ahead of the time with me to turn in these papers late due
to a serious personal or family problem. Consistently late
Blackboard papers will lead to lower evaluations as well, both from
mentors and myself.
A Word on
Plagiarism and Academic Honesty
Plagiarism, cheating, and other forms of academic
dishonesty are serious offenses. They not only undermine the goal
of learning but also are exploitative of the work of others.
Dishonesty in written work as part of this course will result in a
failing grade. In addition, dishonesty may result in further
disciplinary action on the part of the University administration;
dishonesty can ultimately lead to expulsion from the
University. It will be very difficult to buy a paper for
this course from another source, given the nature of the assignments
you will be asked to address, yet if you try to do so, please keep in
we in the English Department know all of the sites, and we will catch
you. Also, If you directly echo someone else’s thoughts as
articulated in the course of class discussion you should add the last
name, followed by the letters CD (for class discussion), followed by
the date, in a parenthetical citation right after the end of the
sentence, viz: (Nowlan, CD, 10/8/03).