Justin W. Patchin
Abbreviated Vitae
June 2014

   
ACADEMIC POSITIONS
  Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
2013 - present
   
  Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
2009 - 2013
   
 

Co-Director, Cyberbullying Research Center
2009 - present

   
 

Visiting Scholar, Behavioral Science Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation
2009 - 2010

   
 

Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
2004 - 2009

   
EDUCATION
  Ph.D. in Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 2004
  M.S. in Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 2000
  B.S. in Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Superior, 1998
   
CURRENT PROJECTS
 

Teen use and misuse of technology, including: cyberbullying, online social networking, and sexting

   
PUBLICATIONS
Books
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2014). Words Wound: Delete Cyberbullying and Make Kindness Go Viral. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing (978-1575424514). (more info)
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2014). A Leader’s Guide to Words Wound. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing. (more info)
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). School Climate 2.0: Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (ISBN: 978-1412997836) (more info)
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives.  New York: Routledge (ISBN: 978-0415892377). (more info)
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (ISBN: 978-1412966894). (more info)
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2006). The Family Context of Childhood Delinquency. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing (ISBN: 1-59332-154-6).
 
Refereed Journal Articles
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2013). Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Implications for Empirical Research. Journal of Adolescent Health 53(4), 431-432.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2013). Social influences on cyberbullying behaviors among middle and high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(5), 711-722.
   
  Sabella, R. A., Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2013).  Cyberbullying myths and realities. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2703-2711.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012). School-based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying. The Prevention Researcher, 19(3), 7-9.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Neither an Epidemic Nor a Rarity. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(5), 539-543.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2011). Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: A test of general strain theory. Youth and Society, 43(2), 727-751.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W.  (2011).  Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators.  Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(2), 71-78.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W.  (2011).  High-tech cruelty.  Educational Leadership, 68(5), 48-52.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health, 80(12), 614-621.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Changes in adolescent online social networking behaviors from 2006 to 2009. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1818-1821.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Trends in online social networking: Youth use of MySpace over time. New Media & Society, 12(2), 197-216.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Personal information of adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 125-146.
   
 

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29(2), 129-156.

    - Reprinted in Thio, A., Calhoun, T. C., and Conyers, A. (eds.). (2010).  Readings in Deviant Behavior, 6th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
   
  Kooi, B. R. & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Neighborhood disadvantage in a moderately-sized city: A SEM analysis. Criminal Justice Studies, 21(4), 325-340.
   
  Ingram, J. R., Patchin, J. W., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., & Bynum, T. S. (2007). Family life, peer associations, and serious delinquency: A path analysis. Criminal Justice Review, 32(4), 380-400.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 89-112.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 123-147.
    - Reprinted in Korken, K. (ed.). (2008). Contemporary Readings in Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (Pine Forge Press).
   
 

Patchin, J. W., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., Varano, S. P., & Bynum, T. S. (2006). Exposure to community violence and childhood delinquency. Crime & Delinquency, 52(2), 307-332.

   

- Reprinted in Furst, G. (ed.). (2009). Contemporary Readings in Criminology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

- Reprinted in Korken, K. (ed.). (2008). Contemporary Readings in Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (Pine Forge Press).

- Reprinted in Crutchfield, R. D., Kubrin, C. E., Bridges, G. & Weis, J. G. (ed.). (2007). Crime Readings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

   
  Wallace, L. H., Patchin, J. W., & May, J. (2005). Reactions of Victimized Youth: Strain as an Explanation of School Delinquency. Western Criminology Review, 6(1), 104-116.
   
  Varano, S. P., McCluskey, J. D., Patchin, J. W., & Bynum, T. S. (2004). Exploring the drugs-homicide connection. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 20(4), 369-392.
   
  McCluskey, C. P., Bynum, T. S. & Patchin, J. W. (2004). Reducing chronic absenteeism: An assessment of an early truancy initiative. Crime & Delinquency, 50(2), 214-234.
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2002). Bullied youths lash out: Strain as an explanation of extreme school violence. Caribbean Journal of Criminology and Social Psychology, 7(1&2), 22-43.
   
Book Chapters
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2014).  Cyberbullying Research: Standing On the Shoulders of International Giants (pp. 265-272). In P. Smith and G. Steffgen (Eds.), Cyberbullying Through the New Media: Findings from an International Network. London: Psychology Press
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2013). Cyberbullying: What we know and what you can do. In Messineo, M. & Holtzman, M. Sociology in Action, 14th ed. Plymouth, MI: Hayden-McNeil.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). Cyberbullying May Exacerbate Problems That Can Lead to Suicide (pp. 52-56).  In L. Gerdes (Ed.). At Issues: Cyberbullying. New York: Cengage Learning.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012).  Preventing Cyberbullying (p. 167-200).  In L. Schrum (Ed.). Educational Technology for School Leaders.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012).  Cyberbullying: An Update and Synthesis of the Research (pp. 13-36).  In J. W. Patchin and S. Hinduja (Eds.). Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives.  New York: Routledge.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012).  School Law Enforcement and Cyberbullying (pp. 161-184).  In J. W. Patchin and S. Hinduja (Eds.). Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives.  New York: Routledge.
   
  Burgess-Proctor, A., Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and online harassment: Reconceptualizing the victimization of adolescent girls (pp. 162-176). In V. Garcia and J. Clifford (Eds.). Female Crime Victims: Reality Reconsidered. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
   
  McCluskey, J., Bynum, T., Varano, S., Huebner, B. M., Patchin, J. W., & Burgess-Proctor, A. (2006). Police organizations and problem solving strategies for juvenile interventions: Identifying crucial elements. In B. Sims & P. Preston (Eds.), Handbook of Juvenile Justice: Theory and Practice (pp. 251-269). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
   
Book Reviews
  Patchin, J. W. (2011).  Book Review: Truths and Myths of Cyber-bullying: International Perspectives on Stakeholder Responsibility and Children’s Safety, by Shaheen Shariff and Andrew Churchill (Eds.).  New Media and Society, 13(4), 683-686.
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2006). Book Review: Fighting Youth Crime: A Comparison Study of Two Little Dragons in Asia, by Alfred Choi & T Wing Lo. International Criminal Justice Review, 16(1), 56-57.
   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2002). Book Review: Law and the Language of Identity: Discourse in the William Kennedy Smith Rape Trial, by Gregory M. Matoesian. Contemporary Sociology, 31 (4), 478-9.

   
Technical Reports and Professional Resources
  Patchin, J.W. (2014). Words wound—for a long time. Teaching Today Wisconsin, Spring 2014, Volume 1. (available here)
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2013). Identifying, Preventing, and Responding to Cyberbullying. Connections: The Center for Spiritual and Ethical Education, October 2013. Portland, OR.
   
 

Patchin, J.W., Schafer, J. A., & Hinduja, S. (2013). Cyberbullying and Sexting: Law Enforcement Perceptions. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, June. (available here)

   

- Reprinted in in RCMP Gazette Magazine, 75(3).

   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2013). What do we really know about cyberbullying? Teaching Today Wisconsin, Spring 2013.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago, IL: World Book, Inc.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011).  Overview of Cyberbullying.  White Paper for the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention.  Washington, DC. (available here)
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011).  Cyberbullying: Identification, Prevention, and Response.  Laminated Reference Guide.  Port Chester, New York: National Professional Resources, Inc. (available here)
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2011).  Cyberbullying: What can you do?  The Clergy Journal, 88(2), 3-5.
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010).  A Student’s Guide to Personal Publishing.  Minneapolis, MN: Jostens. (available here)
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2010). School climate and cyberbullying. Teaching Today Wisconsin, Spring 2010.
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008).  Cyberbullying Among Middle Schoolers in Palm Beach County, Florida.  UW-EC/FAU: Cyberbullying Research Center
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2006). Bullying moves beyond the schoolyard. Teaching Today Wisconsin, May 2006.
   
  Bynum, T. S., Patchin, J. W., Huebner, B. M., & McCluskey, J. D. (2005). Michigan Juvenile Intervention Initiative Final Report on Project Activities. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Keveles, G. N. (2004). Alternatives to Incarceration: An Evidence-Based Research Review. Compiled for the Northwest Wisconsin Criminal Justice Management Conference. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension
   
  Bynum, T. S., Patchin, J. W., McCluskey, J. D., & Huebner, B. M. (2003). Michigan Juvenile Intervention Initiative Fiscal Year 2003 Report on Project Activities. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Bynum, T. S., McCluskey, J. D., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, C. P., & Patchin, J. W. (2002). Michigan Juvenile Intervention Initiative Fiscal Year 2002 Report on Project Activities. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2002). Fact Sheet: LSD. Research report compiled for the Michigan Office of Drug Control Policy. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Bynum, T. S., McCluskey, J. D., Huebner, B. M., Varano, S. P., & Patchin, J. W. (2001). Michigan Juvenile Intervention Initiative Fiscal Year 2001 Report on Project Activities. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2001). Fact Sheet: Cocaine. Research report compiled for the Michigan Office of Drug Control Policy. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Bynum, T. S., McCluskey, J. D., Huebner, B. M., Varano, S. P., & Patchin, J. W. (2000). Michigan Juvenile Intervention Initiative Fiscal Year 2000 Report on Project Activities. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
  Bynum, T. S., McCluskey, C. P., & Patchin, J. W. (2000). “Westside Operation Weed and Seed: An Evaluation of an Early Truancy Initiative.” Final report to the Executive Office of Weed & Seed. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University
   
SCHOLARLY PRESENTATIONS
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S., & McGraw-Stevens, K. (2013). “The Empirical Status of Cyberbullying Research.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012). “The Link between School Climate and Cyberbullying and Sexting” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S., & Keats, I. (2012). “Sexting: Child Pornography or Innocent Courtship Ritual?” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2012). “Cyberbullying and other high-tech challenges.” PREVNet Conference (Toronto, Ontario).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S., & Waterstreet, D. (2011). "Cyberbullying and school climate: A comprehensive approach to prevent online harassment."Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Jarvis, J. P., Schafer, J. A., & Patchin, J. W. (2011).  Roundtable: Connecting research to practice—the promise of forging partnerships.  Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Roundtable Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Schafer, J. A., Hinduja, S., & Jarvis, J. P. (2011).  “Law enforcement perceptions of cyberbullying and sexting.”  Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010).  “Cyberbullying and Law Enforcement: Roles and Effective Responses.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (San Francisco, CA).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Lee, C. (2010). “Assessing Differences in School Resource Officer Perceptions of Cyberbullying.”  Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL). 
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2009). “Cyberbullying and online harassment: Law enforcement's role in the future of school violence.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S. & Haack, W. (2009). “Adolescents on MySpace: Issues and information.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S. & Denney, T. (2009). “What’s the big deal, it’s only text: An analysis of the emotional effects of cyberbullying.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Boston, MA).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2008). “Cyberbullicide: Suicidal ideation and online aggression among adolescents.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (St. Louis, MO).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S. & Denney, T. (2008). “Self-esteem and cyberbullying: The emotional consequences of electronic aggression.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S. & Perrault, H. (2008). “MySpace under the microscope: Trends in adolescent online social networking.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Cincinnati, OH).
   
  Burgess-Proctor, A., Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2008). “Gender and strain in the context of online deviance.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Cincinnati, OH).
   
  Hinduja, S., Patchin, J. W., & Lippman, T. (2008). “Cyberbullying among middle schoolers: Focusing in on the causes and consequences.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Cincinnati, OH).
   
  Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2007). “Cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Atlanta, GA).
   
  Keveles, G. N. & Patchin, J. W. (2007). “The problems and prospects of jail programming in rural counties.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Atlanta, GA).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2007). “Factors that Mediate the Impact of Online Victimization.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Keveles, G. N. & Patchin, J. W. (2007). “Jail Programming in Rural Counties.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Seattle, WA).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S., & Mathias, R. (2007). “Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet: A Quantitative Content Analysis MySpace.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Seattle, WA).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2006). “Strain and cyberbullying among adolescent Internet Users.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Los Angeles, CA).
   
  Keveles, G. N. & Patchin, J. W. (2006). “Rural criminal justice: A coordinated community response to crime problems.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Los Angeles, CA).
   
  Patchin, J. W., Hinduja, S., & Mathias, R. (2006). “A preliminary examination of adolescent MySpace profiles.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Keveles, G. N. (2006). “The ABCs on how to conduct program evaluations to find out if a program is working.” Northwest Wisconsin Criminal Justice Management Conference, March 10, 2006 (Cable, WI)
   
  Burgess-Proctor, A., Patchin, J.W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). “Cyberbullying among adolescent females.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Baltimore, MD).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Keveles, G. N. (2006). Rural jails: Searching for programs and prospects that work. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Baltimore, MD).
   
  Wallace, L. H. & Patchin, J. W. (2005). “Identifying the strain in school delinquency.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Toronto, Ontario).
   
  Keveles, G. N. & Patchin, J. W. (2005). “Problems and prospects of rural jail incarceration research.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Toronto, Ontario).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2005). “Cyberbullying: A preliminary profile of victimization and offending.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Panel Presentation (Chicago , IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2005). “Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Keveles, G. N. (2005). "Alternatives to incarceration: An evidence-based research review.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Ingram, J., Patchin, J. W., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., Varano, S. P., & Bynum, T. S. (2005). “Family life, peer associations, and serious delinquency: A path analysis.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2004). “Familial relations and intervention amenability: Paving a path to delinquency desistance.” American Society of Criminology Thematic Session (Nashville, TN).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Keveles, G. N. (2004). “Alternatives to Incarceration: An Evidence-Based Research Review. ” Northwest Wisconsin Criminal Justice Management Conference, November, 2004 (Cable, WI)
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2004). “The Theoretical Roots of Family-Based Intervention Programming.” Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Maxwell, C. D., McCluskey, J. D., Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2004). “Using GIS to experimentally evaluate the impact of ‘fixing broken windows' on neighborhood safety, social, and physical conditions.” 7th Annual International Crime Mapping Research Conference, National Institute of Justice. ( Boston, MA ). (not primary presenter)
   
  Patchin, J. W., Bynum, T. S., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., & Varano, S. P. (2004). “An evaluation of a community probation program aimed at serious juvenile offenders.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Las Vegas, NV).
   
  Wallace, L. H., Patchin, J. W., & May, J. (2004). "Bullied youths react: Strain as an explanation of school delinquency." Western Society of Criminology Presentation (Long Beach, CA). (not primary presenter)
   
  Patchin, J. W., Bynum, T. S., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., & Varano, S. P. (2003). “Deviance, decay, or disadvantage: Disaggregating social disorganization theory.” American Society of Criminology Thematic Session (Denver, CO)
   
  Patchin, J. W. (2003). "An assessment of the impact of exposure to deviance in a disorganized neighborhood." Midwestern Criminal Justice Association Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
  Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2003). “Electronic Bullying: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Boston, MA).
   
  Hinduja, S., Patchin, J. W., & Maxwell, C. D. (2002). “Dilapidation and Drug Incidents.” American Society of Criminology Presidential Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).
   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2002). “Issues in Juvenile Delinquency Programming: Measuring and Assessing Change.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Chicago, IL).

   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2002). “Crime in Lansing , MI : A Spatial Analysis of Neighborhood Disorganization and the Drug Trade.” Crime Analysis Conference (East Lansing, MI).

   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2002). “Bullied Youths Lash Out: Strain as an Explanation for Extreme School Violence.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Los Angeles, CA).

   
  Patchin, J. W. (2001). “Local Trends in School Delinquency: An Analysis of Aggregate-Level Data.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (Atlanta, GA).
   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2001). “Crime in Lansing, MI : A Spatial Analysis of Neighborhood Disorganization and the Drug Trade.” Presentation to the Chief of the Lansing, MI Police Department (East Lansing, MI).

   
  Bynum, T. S., Perez McCluskey, C., & Patchin, J. W. (2001). “Elementary Absenteeism: An Evaluation of a Weed and Seed Truancy Initiative.” Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Panel Presentation (Washington DC).
   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2000). “Perceptual Stability Among Youthful Offenders: Deterrence Theory Revisited.” American Society of Criminology Panel Presentation (San Francisco, CA).

   
 

Patchin, J. W. (2000). “Perceptual Stability Among Youthful Offenders: Deterrence Theory Revisited.” Departmental Brown Bag Presentation (East Lansing, MI).

   
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