Galtung's Center-Periphery Model
Source for the pie charts on the right:
Financial Times, 10 May
dynamic presentation of Galtung's Center-Periphery Model, view this PowerPoint.
Inequality of income within countries illustrates
center-periphery relations as well.
Examine two world maps of
patients and scientific citations.
percent of the Chinese minority control 70 percent of the private economy.
Philippines: 1 percent of the population of
Chinese Filipinos control 60 percent of the private economy, including the
country's major airlines, almost all the banks, hotels, shopping malls, and
World Bank and International Fund: As
financial lending to Third World countries has increased, their economic
development has decreased -- the reverse of what USA policy makers and
government agencies have argued! The
empirical evidence (New
Internationalist, April 2004) contradicts the conservative,
pro-capitalist rhetoric of globalization.
of the Center,
Semiperiphery, and Periphery between countries in the world:
|dominates trade, controls the most advanced technologies, and has
high levels of productivity within diversified economies.
|exploits peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated
by center regions.
|has underdeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels
The United States, the European Union, and Japan
represent the tri-polar core/center of the world economy and with each
Center dominating particular regions of the world's periphery. Can you image
which Center dominates which world regions? Look
at a map!
Examine a map of U.S. military responses around the world.
model consists of two parts which are found
within each other. It has spatial AND socio-economic dimensions. Think
your own examples for each of the FOUR parts of the model. Check-out
the Wal-Mart geographic-economic model
of doing business. For an example of individual elites as Center (ex-presidents, ex-prime ministers, and cabinet ministers),
or to rephrase U.S. President George Bush, Jr., the axis of
corporate evil -- read about the
other examples of center-periphery relations:
The center in the Center meets the center in the
Periphery -- at the signing of a bilateral economic agreement between
German Minister for Post and Telecommunication, Dr. Wolfgang Bötsch,
and the Indonesian Foreign Minister, Ali
Atalas, with German
Chancellor Kohl and the President of Indonesia Soeharto looking on. At this
agreements were signed, valued at 1,45 billions DM (Deutsch Marks).
Only six currencies
in the world are used for world trade and foreign-exchange reserves -- although the world has almost 200 countries and almost
The graph shows that U.S.
dollars are relatively more important in "developing" countries (Periphery)
than in "industrial" ones (Center). The Cc
(Center-center) is truly a very small club, however measured.
The Cp and both the
Pc and the Pp
adjust to or try to exist as best they can on their own terms. Cuba
and North Korea are two countries with the least relations hips with other
countries. Since the collapse of the
Soviet Union and a world socialist economy, existence outside of the world
capitalist and monetary markets is extremely difficult. Even "communist"
China is using "capitalist" economy principles.
The total value of stocks trades on the world's stock markets are even more concentrated: New York has over $10 trillion;
London and Tokyo, slightly over $2 trillion each; Frankfurt, about $1 trillion;
Paris, less than $1 trillion; and the rest of the world's stock markets have
very small market capitalization.
in Indonesia. The top 500 companies of the world control about
70 percent of the world trade, 30 percent of the foreign investments, and
about 30 percent of the world GNP.
Television programs imported
as a percent of total screen time. The stars on the map show countries
that have pronounced U.S. cultural influences. The blue and darker colors
are the highest values. For a spatial version of this model, see
In East Africa, Malawi with a population of 10
million received $100 million in one year from First World governments
(Center-center) collected from their respective taxpayers
(Center-periphery), or an average of $10 per person -- which represented
a 5 percent
increase from the average income of only $180 a year. Instead of helping
his people (Periphery-periphery), Bakili Muluzi, the president of
Malawi (Periphery-center), spent $2.5 million to
buy new Mercedes-Benz cars (bought in Germany from one of its largest
Center-center corporations) for his cabinet ministers!
[The Economist, 11 November 2000]
How does globalization reflect center-periphery
relationships? Read one article.
What does international trade does and not does for countries? Answer [New
Internationalist, May 2003, pp. 18-19]
- The income gap in Afganistan is especilly visible in Kabul, the capital of the country.
Created by Ingolf Vogeler; last revised
September 25, 2012.